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Photography Merit Badge

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    1. Photography Merit Badge Counselor Christian Ennerfelt 410-546-1732 cennerfelt@hotmail.com

    2. Requirements: Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture: a. Light-natural light/ambient, flash b. Exposure-aperture (f-stops), shutter speed, depth of field c. Composition-rule of thirds, leading lines, framing, depth d. Angle of view e. Stopping action 2. Explain the basic parts and operation of a film camera or digital camera. Explain how an exposure is made when you take a picture. 3. Discuss with your counselor the differences between a film camera and a digital camera. List at least five advantages and five disadvantages of using a digital camera versus using a film camera.

    3. Requirements: Do ONE of the following: a. Produce a picture story using the photojournalistic technique of documenting an event. Share your plan with your counselor and get your counselor's input and approval before you proceed. Then, using either a film camera or a digital camera, produce your approved picture story. Process your images and select 8 to 12 images that best tell your story. Arrange your images in order, then mount the prints on a poster board. If you are using digital images, you may create a slide show on your computer or produce printouts for your poster board. Share your picture story with your counselor. (use captions)

    4. Requirements: b. Choose a topic that interests you to photograph for an exhibit or display. Get your counselor's approval, then photograph (digital or film) your topic. Process your images. Choose 20 of your favorite images and mount them on poster board. Share your display with your counselor. If you are using digital images, you may create a slide show on your computer or produce printouts for your poster board. (use captions, show stickies/cue cards)

    5. Requirements: 5. Discuss with your counselor the career opportunities in photography. Pick one that interests you and explain how to prepare for such a career. Discuss with your counselor the education and training such a career would require.

    6. 1. Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture: Light-natural light/ambient, Natural light is available only during daylight hours outdoors and indoors as it passes through windows. All other light-including streetlights, household lamps, car headlights, or the flash on your camera- is considered artificial light. Ambient Light is basically all available/existing light except a flash/strobe. Color of Light will affect the color of the photo and the mood. At the same exposure level, more light means you can use a shorter shutter speed and smaller aperture and or lower ISO, less light means larger Aperture and/or higher ISO and/or shutter speed. Flash, A Flash is an artificial light source that adds light to the ambient (existing) light. This includes, flashes and strobes. The flash is not on all the time, it only comes on for a short duration while the photograph (exposure) is being taken. A flash can help with extra light where needed, add shadows and flares and to stop action in sports. It is best used with ambient light. A flash has about the same temperature/color as the sun. If used with other light source (eg fluorescent for example) there will be noticeable differences of colors of light in the same picture.

    7. Natural Light Through Window on right No Flash

    8. Ambient Light, No flash

    9. Ambient Light, flash added

    10. Ambient and Flash example Ambient Ambient + Flash

    11. 1. Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture: Exposure- Aperture (f-stops), Is the setting that determines the about of light entering the camera. A larger aperture (small f-stop number) allows more light into the camera. A small aperture (large f-stop number) allows less light in. A large aperture f/1.2-5.6 allows more light in and isolated the subject, make the background/foreground blurry (aka Bokeh) and allows stop action. Often used in Portraits and Sports. f/6.3-f11 allows less light in but brings more area into focus (depth of focus) Often used if you do not care which DOF you have like family gatherings, photos of buildings and products/things) f/16-32 Allows even less light and bring the maximum area into focus. Mostly used in landscape photography. (a tripod is often used to allow for maximum sharpness as small aperture and low ISO is wanted hence often slow shutter speeds) To achieve the same exposure (light) level, a Larger aperture means you can use a shorter shutter speed and or lower ISO, a smaller aperture longer shutter speed and/or higher ISO

    12. Aperture, f-stop

    13. 1. Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture: Exposure- Shutter speed, A short shutter speed can be used to stop action like in sports or other moving things. (most sports can be captured at 1/500th of a second to stop the action). A long shutter speed can be used to show movement or create effects like waterfalls (tripod recommended) or fireworks or moving cars. To achieve the same exposure level, a shorter shutter speed means you need to use a larger aperture and/or higher ISO, a longer shutter speed allow smaller aperture and/or lower ISO ISO: This setting determines how sensitive the film or CCD is to light. A low ISO (100-200 ISO) is typically use in bright conditions, for instance outside during daylight. This ISO has often low noise/grain. Medium ISO 400-800 is typically used indoors with less available light. Most film and cameras start having visible grain/noise. High ISO 1600 + is typically used where stop action (moving camera or subject) is required and is more important than grain/noise. To achieve the same exposure level, a lower ISO means you need to use a larger aperture and/or longer shutter speed, a higher ISO allows smaller aperture and/or shorter shutter speed.

    14. Shutter speed Slow Shutter speed Fast Shutter speed

    15. Shutter speed Slow Shutter speed Fast Shutter speed

    16. Aperture, Shutter and ISO Relationship

    17. 1. Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture: Exposure- Depth of field (DOF) The distance range between the nearest and farthest objects that appear acceptably sharp focus in a photograph. Depth of field depends on the lens opening, the focal length and the distance from the lens to the subject. A large Aperture gives a smaller/thinner DOF than a smaller Aperture where more area is in focus. Use smaller DOF in portraits and sports to isolate the subject. Use larger DOF for landscape and architectural photos.

    18. F-stop and Depth of Field

    19. Real Samples f-stop Small aperture (large f-stop #) Everything in focus Large Aperture (small f-stop #) Subject sharp, background blur

    20. 1. Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture: Composition Rule of thirds, Is used to make a picture more interesting and pleasing to look at. Position subject 1/3 top to bottom and/or left/right in the picture. Leading lines, Roads, fences, bridges and railroads are great examples. Can come from bottom or side leading into the picture. Line should typically should not disappear out top or sides but leaves you wonder where the end is and/or where it is going.

    21. Composition, Rule of thirds

    22. Composition rule of thirds

    23. Composition rule of thirds

    24. Composition Rule of thirds

    25. Composition, Leading Lines

    26. Composition, Leading Lines

    27. 1. Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture: Composition Framing, Framing means almost surrounding you subject with some nearby foreground elements, such as overhanging tree branches. This technique draws attention to the center of interest in the image. Depth, My interpretation is; Instead of just shooting that beautiful mountaintop, try to include a tree-line, some trees, a lake and rocks in the foreground and even some clods in the sky.

    28. Composition, Framing

    29. Composition, Framing

    30. Composition, Depth

    31. Composition, Depth

    32. 1. Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture: d. Angle of view, A human eye sees and angle equivalent to that of a 50mm focal length (on a 35mm camera) Wider angle as achieved with a smaller focal length and gets more into the picture. A longer focal length gets less into the frame, get it closer and appears more compressed. For groups of people, buildings and landscape, a larger angle of view (smaller focal length) is typically used. Portraits are often done with 50-85mm focal length to avoid distortion. Sports and faraway subjects are often done with longer focal length (smaller field of view)

    33. d. Angle of View 200 mm 100mm

    34. d. Angle of View 50 mm 25mm

    35. d. Angle of View Too close for a good portrait

    36. 1. Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture: e. Stopping action, A fast shutter speed stops movement of the subject. Much used in sports, wildlife, indoor performances.

    37. e. Stopping Action

    38. e. Stopping Action

    39. e. Stopping Action

    40. Explain the basic parts and operation of a film camera or digital camera.

    41. Explain the basic parts and operation of a film camera or digital camera.

    42. 2. Explain how an exposure is made when you take a picture. When shutter button is pushed, the aperture blades move to the set Aperture (diameter), the mirror moves away (if SLR) and the film/CCD detects the image, it is recorded/saved onto a memory card, The Mirror closes (time recorded is the shutter speed), CCD stops recording, the aperture blades return to original position.

    43. 3. Differences Film vs Digital Film/negatives vs CCD/Digital/memory Film is familiar to photographers. Develop film, negatives vs digital files print. Editing manual vs software Knowledge vs See now and adjust Film vs digital resolution Grain vs Noise look

    44. 3. Differences Film Pros/Cons Cons Results unknown until prints are ready. All hosts printed, whether good or bad. Storage needed for prints and negatives. Organizing and finding particular negatives Cost for film, processing and prints Only 24 or 36 exposures per roll

    45. 3. Differences Digital Pros/Cons Cons Computer and printer needed for printing Camera cost higher than film equivalent * Storage space needed on computer or cd. Time consuming to edit and print Large prints require high resolution * This is what the Pamphlet is stating but technology has changed very quickly so it is not necessarily true today

    46. 4. Do One of the following: Picture Story Photo journalistic approach (not set up, document as event happens) Event. For example camporees, summer camp, scouting shows, campfire programs, and courts of honor. 8-12 pictures Beginning, middle and end Headline, Title best describing Story Cutlines/Captions Posterboard or powerpoint or other approved slide show

    47. 4. Do One of the following: Illustrate Topic or Theme Use story board technique, Pick a theme, make a premade sketch of set up before taking photo Theme, what you like, interest you. For example, Preparing, cooking serving, and eating dinner. Or, tying a difficult knot, prepare, tying, finished. ~20 pictures Beginning, middle and end Headline, Title best describing Topic or theme Cutlines/Captions Please show story cards to counselor Posterboard or powerpoint or other approved slide show

    48. 5. A career in Photography List of careers opportunities in photography Advertising Military Aerial Multimedia Agricultural Nature Archaeological Oceanographic Architectural Photo editor Commercial Photo Journalist Documentary Portrait Educational Real estate Entertainment Scientific Fashion Sports Fine Art Stock Fire Studio Forensic Travel Industrial Underwater Magazine Wedding Medical Wildlife

    49. 5. A career in Photography Pick a career that may interest you, note it down Why do you think you would like that? What education might be needed with that career? Any other training needed (apprenticeship)?

    50. This information sheet is available here: In Power Point: www.miramis.com/images/photography.pps In Adobe pdf www.miramis.com/images/photography.pdf