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    1. Forestry Merit Badge Will Conrad RF,CF

    2. What is Forestry? The science, art, and practice of managing and using trees, forests, and their associated resources for human benefit.

    3. What is a Forest? Land with a tree canopy that covers at least 10 percent of the area. Lands that have been harvested or recently replanted but are not dedicated to another land use.

    4. Parts of a Mature Forest Canopy- Largest and oldest trees. Highest position in the forest. Understory- Smaller younger trees. Just under the canopy. Shrub Layer- Bushes (woody Stems) up to 15 feet. Herb layer- Ground cover. Grasses, flowers, ferns, and other soft stem plants. Litter layer- Organic material on the forest floor. Decomposing material from trees and other plants. This layer contains nutrients that are returned to the soil.

    6. Scientific Nomenclature Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

    7. What is an Ecosystem? A group of living organisms living in a particular environment that are dependent on each other and their environment. Population- A group of the same species living together. Plant or Animal. Community- Is made up of all the populations in the area. Communities and physical surroundings make the Ecosystem.

    8. Parts of a Tree Roots- Give the tree support. Roots absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil and deliver it throughout the tree.

    9. Parts of a Tree Leaves/Needles- Chlorophyll, found in leaves absorbs energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide, water, and soil nutrients into plant food. This process Photosynthesis- returns oxygen to the atmosphere. Each Fall as food production slows the chlorophyll fades to allow the leaf to show its true color.

    10. Parts of a Tree Bark- The nonliving outer armor of a trees trunk and branches. Cambium layer- Thin layer of tissue containing two types of cells. Phloem- Channels food produced by the leaves throughout the tree. These cells form the bark of the tree. Xylem- Makes the sapwood which moves moisture and nutrients from the roots to the crown of the tree. Becomes Heartwood. Forms the annual rings.

    16. Conifers Gymnosperms-uncovered seeds in cones. Fertilized by wind Needlelike leaves. Do not fall off at the end of summer. Grow at both high and low elevations.

    17. Pines

    18. Loblolly Pine Map

    19. Spruces

    20. White Spruce Map

    21. Firs

    22. Balsam Fir Map

    23. Larches

    24. Larch Map

    25. Hemlocks

    26. Eastern Hemlock Map

    27. Douglas Fir

    28. Douglas Fir Map

    29. Redwoods

    30. Redwood Map

    31. Cedars

    32. Eastern Red Cedar Map

    33. Broad Leaf Tree Angiosperms-Flowering plants. They make ovules or eggs that develop into seeds after fertilization. Seeds are enclosed in fruit. Leaves fall in the winter. Deciduous trees

    34. Aspens

    35. Aspen Map

    36. Hickories

    37. Shagbark Hickory Map

    38. Birch

    39. River Birch Map

    40. Beeches

    41. American Beech Map

    42. Oaks

    43. White Oak Map

    44. Forest Succession

    45. Forest Succession How forests work. shade tolerance pioneers climax species forest succession

    46. Shade Tolerance

    47. Pioneer Species: Used to describe species that are intolerant to very intolerant to shade. The first tree species to inhabit a site after a stand-replacing event. They are typically fast-growing, are characterized by open or low density crowns, and have a relatively short life span. Climax Species: Used to describe the most shade tolerant tree species that are native to a particular region.

    48. Almost all North American woods that are used for structural timbers are pioneers or intolerant to shade.

    49. Relative Shade Tolerance of North American Tree Species

    50. Relative Shade Tolerance of North American Tree Species

    51. Relative Shade Tolerance of North American Tree Species

    52. Relative Shade Tolerance of North American Tree Species

    53. Relative Shade Tolerance of North American Tree Species

    54. Forest Succession: The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, usually as a result of differences in shade tolerance.

    63. Consider what happens following the harvest of lodgepole pine in the western U.S.

    68. Compare this to developments following a clearcut by nature.

    73. Take a look at the commercial harvest of aspen in Minnesota.

    79. Question: Based on what you have learned about forest succession and the kinds of trees that are most useful in producing structural timbers, why would anyone who cares anything about forests ever harvest by the clearcutting method?

    80. Requirements 1 & 2 Identify 25 Species of trees

    81. Using A Plant Key

    89. Tree Identification Characteristics, Habitat and Uses of 40 Common Trees of Alabama

    90. Post Oak Quercus stellata Notable Leaves are cross shaped Habitat Dry gravelly or sandy uplands Uses Pulp, firewood, lumber, railroad ties

    91. Southern Red Oak Quercus falcata Notable Leaf is bell-shaped Habitat Dry gravelly uplands, rich and often inundated bottoms Uses Lumber, pulp, furniture, cabinets, veneer, mill

    92. Black Oak Quercus velutina Notable The yellow inner bark yields quercitron, a yellow dye Habitat Prefers well-drained sites on ridges and hills, highly tolerant of poor soils Uses Firewood, pulp

    93. Chinkapin Oak Quercus muhlenbergii Notable Mature bark is gray or nearly white Habitat Dry hillsides, prefers dry limestone ridges Uses Lumber, barrel staves, railroad ties, pulp

    94. Scarlet Oak Quercus coccinea Notable Leaves have deep C shaped sinuses Habitat Prefers light sandy or gravelly soils Uses Lumber, interior woodwork, furniture, landscaping

    95. Water Oak Quercus nigra Notable Leaves are highly variable Habitat Borders swamps and streams, rich bottomlands Uses Rough lumber, firewood, pulp, landscaping

    96. Laurel Oak Quercus laurifolia Notable Leaves remain on the tree until the spring Habitat Sandy banks of streams, swamps and rich hummocks Uses firewood, pulp

    97. Eastern Redbud Cercis canadensis Notable Pink flowers in the spring and heart shaped leaves are characteristic Habitat Moist soils of valleys and slopes Uses - Ornamental

    98. American Hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana Notable Leaves are doubly serrate Habitat In swamps on the borders of streams. Found in most counties except the southern tier. Uses Tool handles and fuel

    99. Black Willow Salix nigra Notable Long slender leaves and flexible branches, switches Habitat Found along streams, lakes and swamps in every county. Uses Pulp, cheap furniture, charcoal and soil erosion control. Previously used as artificial limbs.

    100. Black Cherry Prunus serotina Notable Conspicuous lenticels on bark Habitat Dry to moist forests, fence rows, old fields, and forest edges Uses Pulp, lumber, furniture

    101. Chinaberry Melia azedarach Notable large compound leaf Habitat Dry soils, disturbed areas, pastures, barnlots and fencerows Uses Fruits have been used to make flea powder

    102. Hackberry Celtis occidentalis Notable Bark exhibits corky warts, yellow leaf galls are common Habitat Can tolerate a wide range of habitats Uses Pulp and rough lumber

    103. Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoids Notable Seeds dispersed through air due to cotton-like tufts found on seeds, name comes from delta shaped leaf Habitat Rich, moist soils along streams lakes and bottoms Uses Pulp and crates

    104. White Basswood Tilia heterophylla Notable Underside of heart-shaped leaf is white velvety Habitat Rich moist slopes or near streams or limestone soils Uses Crating, furniture, wood carving, bee keepers supplies

    105. Red Mulberry Morus rubra Notable Milky sap oozes from the leafstalk when removed; leaves have three distinct shapes like sassafras Habitat Deep moist soils along streams Uses Pulp

    106. Common Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Notable Bark is often broken into quadrangular blocks Habitat Somewhat sandy, well drained soil, also rich bottomlands Uses Pulp, lumber, golf clubs

    107. Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua Notable Fruits are known as gumballs; star shaped leaf Habitat Deep, rich, moist soils Uses Pulp, lumber, veneer, railroad ties, furniture

    108. River Birch Betula nigra Notable Salmon colored papery bark that peels off Habitat Banks of streams, lakes and swamps Uses Pulp and fuel

    109. Osage Orange Maclura pomifera Notable Orange-like green fruit, Native Americans used wood to make bows hence Bois-darc Habitat Rich bottom lands Uses Fence posts, landscaping, hedges, bows, dyes

    110. Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Notable Opposite compound leaves with 5-9 leaflets Habitat Low rich moist soils; near banks of streams and lakes Uses Pulp, lumber, tool handles, baseball bats, furniture, flooring

    111. Water Hickory Carya aquatica Notable Leaflets are covered with yellow dots; hickory nuts are wrinkled Habitat River swamps Uses Fuel

    112. Boxelder Acer negundo Notable Only maple with a compound leaf; 3-5 leaflets Habitat Moist, fertile soils Uses Pulp, boxes, syrup

    113. Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida Notable Bark has alligator leather appearance; red berries; white flowers Habitat Well drained soils on moist slopes, generally in the shade of other species Uses Pulp, landscaping

    114. Sassafras Sassafras albidum Notable Leaves have three distinct shapes, crushed leaves smell like root beer Habitat Prefers rich sandy loam, but thrives in a variety of sites Uses Pulp, oil, barrel staves, fence posts

    115. Black Walnut Juglans nigra Notable compound leaf with 13-23 leaflets, large round fruit Habitat Deep, moist and well-drained soil. Uses Furniture, gun stocks and nuts

    116. Yellow Poplar Liriodendron tulipifera Notable Leaves are tulip shaped Habitat Prefers deep, rich, moist soil along streams, bottomlands and moist slopes Uses Lumber, furniture, veneer

    117. American Sycamore Platanus occidentalis Notable Most massive tree of eastern U.S.; mottled bark Uses Lumber, pulp, furniture Habitat Deep, rich, moist soils of creek and river flats

    118. American Beech Fagus grandifolia Notable Cigar shaped buds and smooth bark Habitat Rich moist bottomlands, gravelly slopes, rich uplands Uses Pulp, wildlife, aesthetics

    119. Baldcypress Taxodium distichum Notable Buttressed base, cypress knees arise from ground Habitat Swamps inundated several months of the year Uses Lumber fences, paneling

    120. American Holly Ilex opaca Notable Spines found on evergreen leaves Habitat Rich moist bottomland Uses Landscaping

    121. Southern Magnolia Magnolia grandiflora Notable Evergreen, waxy leaves; large white flower Habitat Rich, moist soil on borders of streams and pine-barren ponds Uses Landscaping

    122. Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana Notable Leaves are aromatic, undersurface of leaves are silver Habitat Swamps and wet areas Uses Pulp, lumber, plywood veneer

    123. Bigleaf Magnolia Magnolia macrophylla Notable Flowers and leaves are larger than those of any other tree in North America Habitat Sheltered valleys in deep rich soil Uses Ornamental

    124. Live Oak Quercus virginiana Notable Leaves are evergreen; acorns are black, long, and slender; strong wood used in early American ships Habitat Hammocks, borders of salt marshes, maritime forests and coastal dunes Uses Landscaping, pulp, firewood

    125. Eastern Redcedar Juniperus virginiana Notable Fragrant wood; blue berries Habitat Abandoned fields, rocky cliffs, limestone soils Uses Moth-proof chests, closets, cabinets, fence posts, pencils

    126. Longleaf Pine Pinus palustris Notable longest needles, stoutest twigs, and whitest buds of pines Habitat Well drained, sandy and gravelly soils Uses Lumber, poles, bridges, resinous chemicals, pulp

    127. Loblolly Pine Pinus taeda Notable Pioneer tree found in old fields due to needed sunlight; bristle tips on cones are painful when squeezed Habitat Old fields, dry and wet sites Uses Lumber, railroad ties, piling, pulp and pallets

    128. Slash Pine Pinus elliottii Notable Needles bound in fasicles of two and three, thin twigs Habitat Low moist areas with high water tables Uses Pulp, poles, lumber, crossties and turpentine

    129. Shortleaf Pine Pinus echinata Notable Resin pits visible on bark, small cones Habitat Well drained light sandy or gravelly clay soil Uses Pulp, lumber and excelsior

    130. Native Species Natural inhabitants of an area. Each species has a clear niche in the ecosystem.

    131. Nonnative Species Also know as exotic. A species that has been introduced from forest somewhere else.

    132. Noxious weeds Invasive species designated by law as undesirable and requiring control.

    133. Tree History Aged at the Stump. Aged by increment borer.

    136. Requirement 3

    138. Recreation

    139. Recreation

    140. Threatened And Endangered

    141. Tennessee Yellow Eye Grass

    142. Red Cockated Woodpecker

    143. Boulder Darter

    144. Water Cycle

    145. Carbon Cycle

    146. Wildlife Habitat

    147. Fish Habitat

    148. Requirement 4

    149. Silvicultural Systems Silviculture- Latin (Silva-Forest or Trees) (Culture-To grow). Defined- The science of planting, growing, and harvesting stands of trees to meet the objectives of the land manager or forest owner.

    150. Intermediate Cuttings Improvement Cuttings Salvage Cuttings Sanitation Cuttings

    151. Silvicultural Systems Even-Aged Systems- Systems that result in trees of approximately the same age. Uneven-Aged Systems- Systems that result in trees of many age classes. These systems are viewed as regeneration harvest.

    152. Even-Aged Systems Clearcut Seed-Tree Shelterwood

    153. Clearcut Systems Harvesting all the trees in an area in a single harvest. Allows full access to sunlight to shade intolerant species. (Loblolly Pine).

    154. Clearcut Method

    155. Seed-Tree System Harvest a mature stand of trees and leave a few healthy seed-producing trees per acre. Once the new stand is established the seed trees are harvested.

    156. Seed-Tree Method

    157. Shelterwood System Involves a series of partial cuttings in the mature stand over time. Early cuttings improve the vigor of the remaining trees and help prepare the site for new seedlings. The trees left provide shade for the seedlings and young trees. As the young trees gain viability the shelter trees can be removed allowing the new trees to be even-aged. (Shade tolerant trees).

    158. Shelterwood Method

    159. Shelterwood Method

    160. Uneven-Aged Systems Single Tree Selection Group Selection

    161. Single Tree Selection Creates and maintains an uneven-aged stand. Seedlings or sprouts can grow in the spaces created by the tree removal. The stand is made up of trees of many ages and sizes. (Shade tolerant species).

    162. Single-Tree Selection

    163. Group-Tree Selection Small openings are created to encourage regeneration. Mini Clearcuts. Frequent harvest maintain uneven-age structure.

    164. Group-Tree Selection

    165. Improvement Cuttings In a stand containing desirable and undesirable trees, an improvement cutting may be made to favor the desirable ones.

    166. Improvement Cutting

    167. Improvement Cutting

    168. Improvement Cutting

    169. Salvage Cutting Natural catastrophes such as windstorms, ice storms, and fires sometimes cause destruction in the forest. The salvage cutting allows to minimize the loss by harvesting the damaged trees. It also helps reduce the danger of fire by removing dead material.

    170. Salvage Cutting

    171. Sanitation Cutting When trees in the stand are harmed by insects or disease, the sanitation cutting will remove the infested or infected trees that pose a threat to the neighboring healthy trees.

    172. Sanitation Cutting

    174. Reforestation Natural Hand Planting Machine Planting

    175. Natural Regeneration

    176. Hand Planting

    177. Machine Planting

    180. Requirement 5 Video of logging operations and BMPs

    181. Requirement 6

    182. Damage to Forest Animal Damage Insect Damage Disease Damage Wildfire

    183. Browse Damage

    184. Porcupine Damage

    185. Insect: Gypsy Moth

    186. Insect: Southern Pine Beetle

    187. Insect: SPB Damage

    188. Forest Disease