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  1. Overview • Introduction • The Level of Abstraction • Organization & Architecture • Structure & Function • Why study computer organization?

  2. Introduction • We will study the design, structure and internal organization of computer system. • It can be studied at many levels of abstraction.

  3. What is Computer? Computer a fast electronic calculating machine, which accepts digitized input information, process it according to a program, stored in its memory, and produces the resultant output information.

  4. The Automobile • Driver • Automobile mechanic • Automobile designer • Automobile engineer • Chemist or Metallurgist

  5. Level of Abstraction • Operating systems level • Programming language level • Functional organization level • Hardware design level • The laws of physics Computer science Electrical engineering Physics

  6. Level of Abstraction Operating System Level • Deals with : Packages, jobs, canned routines • Computer view : A black box that solves problems

  7. Level of Abstraction Programming language level • Deals with : Programs, statements, loops, conditions • Computer view : A collection of problem-solving primitives in a high-level language

  8. Level of Abstraction Functional organization level • Deals with : Memory, processors, I/O devices, registers • Computer view :A collection of major hardware subsystems

  9. Level of Abstraction Hardware design level • Deals with : Gates, circuits, chips, boards • Computer view :A collection of discrete electrical components

  10. Level of Abstraction The laws of physics • Deals with : Electrons, atoms, magnetism • Computer view :A physical system composed of elemental particles

  11. Organization & Architecture Computer Architecture • Those attributes of a system visible to a programmer • Those attributes that have a direct impact on the logical execution of a program • Example :- instruction set, I/O mechanism, memory addressing techniques,number of bits used for data representation.

  12. Organization & Architecture Computer Organization • Those attributes include hardware details transparent to the programmer. • The computer system’s resources. • Study structure and function of computer component. • Example :-control signal, memory, interface between components.

  13. Structure and Function • Structure : The way in which the components are interrelated. • Function : The operation of each individual component as part of the structure.

  14. Structure Main structural components • Processor • Memory • I/O • System Interconnection

  15. Function Basic functions of computer • Data Processing • Data Storage • Data Movement • Control

  16. Why study Comp. Organ.? • Allow you to intelligently evaluate, compare and select computer equipment and peripherals. • Allow you to understand how to write optimized and more efficient program. • Almost every branch of CS requires a background in Comp. Organ.

  17. Computer for sales • Intel Pentium III 100 MHz • 128 MB SDRAM • 30 GB HDD • 48X CD-ROM • 56K Fax/Modem • Intel 814E Chipset direct AGP • 17” WXGA

  18. Computer for sales • Intel®Core™ 2 Duo Processor T8100 (3MB L2 Cache, 2.1GHz, 800MHzFSB) • 3GB DDR2 SDRAM • 320 GB Hard Drive • DVD RW • 256MB ATI • Bluetooth • 15.4” WXGA Display with TrueLife™ • Wireless 1397

  19. Computer System • Hardware • Software • People • Data

  20. Computer System Hardware (Computer Component) • Central Processing Unit • Memory Unit • Input/Output Unit • Storage devices • System buses

  21. Computer System Software • System software • Operating System :- Dos, Windows, Unix • Compiler • Application software • Word Processing • Payroll System

  22. Computer System People • End user • Programmer • System analyst • System administrator

  23. Computer System Data • Data : Fact • Information : Process data Data Data Processing Information

  24. von Neumann architecture All contemporary computer design are base on three key concepts : • Data and instructions are stored in a single read-write memory. • The contents of this memory are addressable by location • Execution occurs in a sequential fashion from one instruction to the next

  25. Programming in Hardware Customized Hardware Sequence of Arithmetic and Logic Functions Data Results Hardwired program

  26. Programming in Software Instruction Codes Instruction Interpreter Control signals General-Purpose Arithmetic and Logic Functions Data Results software