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Overview • Introduction • The Level of Abstraction • Organization & Architecture • Structure & Function • Why study computer organization?
Introduction • We will study the design, structure and internal organization of computer system. • It can be studied at many levels of abstraction.
What is Computer? Computer a fast electronic calculating machine, which accepts digitized input information, process it according to a program, stored in its memory, and produces the resultant output information.
The Automobile • Driver • Automobile mechanic • Automobile designer • Automobile engineer • Chemist or Metallurgist
Level of Abstraction • Operating systems level • Programming language level • Functional organization level • Hardware design level • The laws of physics Computer science Electrical engineering Physics
Level of Abstraction Operating System Level • Deals with : Packages, jobs, canned routines • Computer view : A black box that solves problems
Level of Abstraction Programming language level • Deals with : Programs, statements, loops, conditions • Computer view : A collection of problem-solving primitives in a high-level language
Level of Abstraction Functional organization level • Deals with : Memory, processors, I/O devices, registers • Computer view :A collection of major hardware subsystems
Level of Abstraction Hardware design level • Deals with : Gates, circuits, chips, boards • Computer view :A collection of discrete electrical components
Level of Abstraction The laws of physics • Deals with : Electrons, atoms, magnetism • Computer view :A physical system composed of elemental particles
Organization & Architecture Computer Architecture • Those attributes of a system visible to a programmer • Those attributes that have a direct impact on the logical execution of a program • Example :- instruction set, I/O mechanism, memory addressing techniques,number of bits used for data representation.
Organization & Architecture Computer Organization • Those attributes include hardware details transparent to the programmer. • The computer system’s resources. • Study structure and function of computer component. • Example :-control signal, memory, interface between components.
Structure and Function • Structure : The way in which the components are interrelated. • Function : The operation of each individual component as part of the structure.
Structure Main structural components • Processor • Memory • I/O • System Interconnection
Function Basic functions of computer • Data Processing • Data Storage • Data Movement • Control
Why study Comp. Organ.? • Allow you to intelligently evaluate, compare and select computer equipment and peripherals. • Allow you to understand how to write optimized and more efficient program. • Almost every branch of CS requires a background in Comp. Organ.
Computer for sales • Intel Pentium III 100 MHz • 128 MB SDRAM • 30 GB HDD • 48X CD-ROM • 56K Fax/Modem • Intel 814E Chipset direct AGP • 17” WXGA
Computer for sales • Intel®Core™ 2 Duo Processor T8100 (3MB L2 Cache, 2.1GHz, 800MHzFSB) • 3GB DDR2 SDRAM • 320 GB Hard Drive • DVD RW • 256MB ATI • Bluetooth • 15.4” WXGA Display with TrueLife™ • Wireless 1397
Computer System • Hardware • Software • People • Data
Computer System Hardware (Computer Component) • Central Processing Unit • Memory Unit • Input/Output Unit • Storage devices • System buses
Computer System Software • System software • Operating System :- Dos, Windows, Unix • Compiler • Application software • Word Processing • Payroll System
Computer System People • End user • Programmer • System analyst • System administrator
Computer System Data • Data : Fact • Information : Process data Data Data Processing Information
von Neumann architecture All contemporary computer design are base on three key concepts : • Data and instructions are stored in a single read-write memory. • The contents of this memory are addressable by location • Execution occurs in a sequential fashion from one instruction to the next
Programming in Hardware Customized Hardware Sequence of Arithmetic and Logic Functions Data Results Hardwired program
Programming in Software Instruction Codes Instruction Interpreter Control signals General-Purpose Arithmetic and Logic Functions Data Results software