I. The Isolationist Debate • By 1940, most Americans favored limited aid to the Allies • Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies wanted to do everything possible to help the Allies except armed intervention • Fight for Freedom Committee urged the repeal of all neutrality laws • America First Committee opposed any American intervention or aid to the Allies Said a bird in the midst of a Blitz. “Up to now they’ve scored very few hitz. So I’ll sit on my canny Old Star Spangled Fanny…” And on it he sitz and he sitz.
II. Edging Toward War A. In the Destroyers-for-Bases Deal (1940), FDR gave Britain 50 old destroyers in exchange for naval & air bases on British-controlled territories
II. Edging Toward War… • FDR signed the Selective Training & Service Act, our first peacetime draft (1940) • Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act (1941) 1. U.S. would lend or lease military supplies to countries “vital to the defense of the U.S.” 2. Most aid went to Britain, but some went to USSR & China
II. Edging Toward War… • In order to help protect British cargo ships, FDR created the hemispheric defense zone 1. Said since the western part of the Atlantic was in the W. Hemisphere, it was neutral 2. Ordered U.S. Navy to patrol this area & reveal the location of German subs to the British CONVOYS INCREASED THE MERCHANT SHIPS CHANCES OF SURVIVING THE OCEAN VOYAGE
II. Edging Toward War… • Roosevelt & Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter (1941) 1. Agreed that the postwar world would favor democracy, nonaggression, free trade, economic advancement, & freedom of the seas “They respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live…” “They desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations…”
III. Japan Attacks • To hinder Japanese aggression in Asia, FDR began applying economic pressure 1. Congress gave FDR the power to restrict strategic materials, such as airplane fuel & scrap iron (July 1940)
III. Japan Attacks… • Japan joined the Axis Powers • By July 1941, Japan posed a threat to the British Empire in Asia & the Philippines 1. FDR froze all Japanese assets in the U.S. & reduced the amount of oil sent to Japan Osaka Puck Feb. 1942. Urges the enchained of India to rise up against the British.The message on the Japanese flag proclaims that Japan’s Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity sphere will bayonet the British.
III. Japan Attacks… • U.S. & Japan attempted to negotiate • At the same time, Japan was preparing to attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii