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The Romantic Era

The Romantic Era

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The Romantic Era

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  1. The Romantic Era 1829-1910

  2. Romance/Romantic • term derived from medieval French • imaginative tale written in a romance language as opposed to Latin. Ordinary people achieving the extraordinary • Term Romantic first appears in English literature during the 17th Century

  3. Individualism • The individual imagination paired with defiance to authority reached its peak during the 19th C • Artists served themselves rather than pleasing aristocratic patrons • When accepting patronage, it was to the artist’s own terms

  4. A thing for the past • Sir Walter Scott – almost a dozen popular novels set in medieval times • Eugène Delacroix – gallant knights followed chivalric code in service of idealized women • Hector Berlioz – Greek and Roman mythology in his opera “The Trojans” http://thespace.org/items/e0000exc • Richard Wagner – Norse mythology “The Ring Cycle” http://ringcycle.metoperafamily.org/

  5. The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople Arabs Skirmish in the Mountains Combat between Giaour and Pasha Collision of Two Moorish Horsemen

  6. Grotesque Themes • Hunchback of Notre Dame – Hugo 1831 • Ring of Nebulung – ugly dwarfs • Faust – Goethe

  7. Nature’s Force and Power • Darwin’s theory of natural selection 1859 “On the Origin of Species” • Caspar David Friedrich 1774-1840 • William Turner 1775-1851

  8. The Industrial Revolution • Smokestack industries spewed ash over cities and countryside • People abandoned farms for greater security in the cities – instead they found congestion, poverty and crime • Cheap labor – including child labor in factories

  9. Warfare • Napoleon assembled hordes of soldiers motivated by patriotism rather than money • Development of the Gatling gun • Little concern for civilian casualties

  10. Colonialism to Imperialism • World powers Britain, France and Germany governed the “lesser” races of the world, traveling to Africa, India and the Middle East • Institutuionalized slavery

  11. Politics • American Civil War • French Revolution • Risogimento – the resurgence, unification of Italy • A newly united Germany under leadership of Otto von Bismarck

  12. Education • Extended to the middle class • Spread of egalitarianism – race, gender battles

  13. The work week • At start of Romantic Era – 70 hours per week • At end of Romantic Era – 50 hours per week • Provided more leisure time • Permanent orchestras and symphonies put in place as well as the nine month concert season

  14. Hector Berlioz • 1803-1869 small town near Grenoble • Wavy red hair, penetrating eyes and unbound energy • Shared Father’s love for literature • Father insisted Hector study medicine • Lasted 2yrs

  15. Hector Berlioz • In Paris, no family support for music • Prix de Rome (3rd try) • 1827 first saw H.S. • Music seen as incorrect to the public • Music critic • Idèe Fixe (fixed idea) • Programmatic Music • Marriage was over within six years

  16. Symphony Fantastique1830 • Part I – Reveries, passions • Part II – a ball (15:20) • Part III – Country side (21:50) • Part IV – March to Scaffold (37:50) • Part V – A Witches’ Sabbath (44:45)

  17. Hector Berlioz • Symphonie Fantastique • Romeo and Juliet • The Trojans • Treatise on Instrumentation and Modern Orchestration • Tuba Mirum • Te Deum

  18. Nicolo Paganini • Born into a poor family 1782-1840 • Father made him practice morning to night even denying food • By 13 leading violinist would not take him as a student http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXoAYWpzT3E

  19. Nicolo Paganini • By 18 supported himself by giving performances • Warsaw and Paris 1829 1831 Liszt and Chopin

  20. The Piano • In 1830 < 10,000 produced annually • By 1900 > 500,000 • Viennese piano of Beethoven competed with the French pianos of Pleyel and Erard

  21. Franz Liszt 1811-1886 • Hungarian family that worked with Esterhazy estate • Thought descended from nobility – no proof • Father taught cello when he was 7 • Hungarian nobles provided scholarship for him to study music in Vienna when 10

  22. Liszt 1811-1886 • Studied with Czerny (pupil of Beethoven) • As a teenager, travelled in France, England and Switzerland to play concerts • Day before premiere of Symphony Fantastique, met Berlioz

  23. Liszt 1811-1886 • Three months later met Paganini • From 16-19 dedicated 10-12 hours daily to achieve his own “transcendental technique” • Le concert, c’est moi • 1848 permanent conductor of Weimar court orchestra http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hQULyGMhhWs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GX0KiSwm3yc

  24. Liszt 1811-1886 • 1860 moved from Weimar to Rome because of an affair with a Catholic princess • Taught master classes for 25 years to his death • 1865 took minor Catholic orders, though he never became a priest

  25. Frederic Chopin • 1810-1849 • Reserved and withdrawn • Born in Warsaw: mom Polish, dad French • 1829 heard Paganini • Lived in Paris for the latter part of his life • Gave lessons to aristocratic children

  26. Frederic Chopin • Asked students to leave fees on the mantlepiece • 1836 Met George Sand, aka Aurore Dudevant • Suffered from tuberculosis – travelling to England 1848 may have quickened his death

  27. Frederic Chopin • Wrote nearly 250 works • Most works are 2-6 minutes • Mastered the mazurka, polonaise, nocturne, and etude http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6PGpn6Iw50g http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LkXsnEEQmE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LkXsnEEQmE

  28. Felix Mendelssohn • 1809-1847 • Songs Without Words • Overture • Sister Fanny • Known for melodies • Father was a banker • Mother

  29. Felix Mendelssohn • Used classical forms • Embodied the feelings of Romanticism • Visited Goethe, stayed two weeks • Overture a stand alone work http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0gHTNJVFtA

  30. Robert Schumann • 1810-1856 • Loved literature • 16 attended University • Did not attend class: read, sketched novels and improvised piano • 18 took lessons from Friedrich Wieck – met 9 year old Clara

  31. Robert Schumann • 1830 heard Paganini • Signs of manic-depressive disorder • Fingers injured • Turned to composition and journalism • First to praise Berlioz, Chopin and Brahms

  32. Robert Schumann • 1839 Engagement • Legal battles • 1840 Married Clara • 150 songs • cycle of great production followed by periods of depression and inactivity • Suicide attempt • Assylum

  33. Brahms • 1833-1897 • Born the middle child: mom43 dad25 • Sent Schumann his works of youth – returned unopened • Conservative • Absolute music of classical era http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BAuqxEMRapg

  34. Johann Strauss, Jr. • 1825-1899 • Father discouraged musical career • 1842 undertook his own musical education • 1860 world famous • International Peace Jubilee in America 10,000 instrumentalist 20,000 singers, 100 sub-conductors http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qqm9jaM5UPA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lkzWF1UE1CI

  35. Opera in Italy • Early 18th C opera moved from theathers of the aristocracy to public theaters • Opera houses in Paris, London, Berlin, and Vienna • Most popular form of entertainment • Audience members not formally educated in music • Libretto

  36. Gioacchino Rossini • 1792-1868 • At 18 wrote his first opera • 1810-1829 36+ Spain, France and Italy • The Barber of Seville

  37. Giuseppe Verdi • 1813-1901 • Perfect blend of music and drama • First music lessons 3 • At 18 Milan conservatory refused admission • 1840 first production at La Scala - failure

  38. Verdi • Within 2 months of first major flop, lost his wife, son and daughter • 1842 Nabucco • In following years, 20 more operas followed, including Rigolletto, Il Tovatore, La Traviata

  39. Verdi • Verdi’s operas had subtle political undertones • For unification of Italy, he played an important role • After 1860 completed only 5 operas • Melodies that beg to be whistled or hummed • Melodies straightforward and subtle • Orchestration bold

  40. Verdi

  41. Giacomo Puccini • 1858-1924 • Originated from family of church musicians • Sometimes worked in Tuscan folk songs or snatches from Verdi opera • Milan conservatory at 22 • “The Almighty touched me with his little finger and said: “Write for the theater, mind you, only for the theater!”

  42. Puccini • Madama Butterfly, Tosca, La boheme • Verismo – realism: favored lower class characters caught up in lust, greed hatred, betrayal, or revenge.

  43. Richard Wagner • 1813-1883 • Youngest of nine • Father died when Wagner was 6 mo. • Wanted an opera in Paris • Journals, piano arrangements Tristan and Isoldehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NlpLlQbNFow

  44. Wagner • Affairs, debtors prison, insensitive, exiled • Die Hochzeit (the wedding) • The Flying Dutchman • Tannhauser • Lohengrin • The Ring

  45. Wagner • Unending melody • Leitmotif • Zukunftsmusik (music of the future) • Gesamtkunstwerk (complete artwork) • “Lohengrin sought a woman who would believe in him, who would believe in him, who would not ask who he was or from where he came, but would love him just as he was… Doubt and jealousy prove to him that he is not understood but only adored, and tear from him the confession of his divinity, whith which he returns, destroyed, into isolation.”

  46. Camille Saint - Säens • 1835-1921 • Organist – began playing at 3: by 10 he was playing Beethoven concertos in public • Traveled extensively (Australia, Antarctica) • Wife was half his age. Two sons; death

  47. Saint - Säens • Blamed his wife for their death – leaves her and travels the world extensively • After 1880 France recognized him as outdated. This contributed to his travels • Helped found the French National Music Society • Algeria • Samson and Delilah, Danse Macabre, Carnival of the Animals http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tG8QCjaw4yk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5LOFhsksAYw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YMeGxIgVdHU