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The Romantic Era 1820-1900 Characteristics of Romantic Music Emotion rules reason Fascination with fantasy, the supernatural, the forces of nature, horror adventure, heroes Fervor for nationalism or exoticism Program music Expansionism and miniatures Characteristics (cont.)

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characteristics of romantic music
Characteristics of Romantic Music
  • Emotion rules reason
  • Fascination with fantasy, the supernatural, the forces of nature, horror adventure, heroes
  • Fervor for nationalism or exoticism
  • Program music
  • Expansionism and miniatures
characteristics cont
Characteristics (cont.)
  • Expanded range of pitch, dynamics and tempo
  • Chromaticism
  • Attention to tone colors and orchestration
romantic composers
Romantic Composers
  • Composers are considered artists
  • Composers wrote for middle class
  • Many were virtuoso performers, conductors and teachers as well as composers
  • Compositions seem more introspective
  • Miniatures: Short intimate pieces
  • The Art Song: (lied) short intimatecomposition for solo voice and piano based on poetry in which the piano is a partner in the drama. Art songs may be in strophic or through- composed form.
  • Song Cycle: Art songs unified by a storyline or some other factor that links them
genres cont
Genres (cont.)
  • Program music: instrumental musicassociated with a story, poem, or idea
  • Program symphony: A multi-movementorchestral composition with descriptive titles for each movement.
  • Symphonic poem or tone poem: a onemovement program orchestral work
genres cont7
Genres (cont.)
  • Incidental music: music to be performedbefore and during a play.
  • Etude: In French, “study”; a piecedesigned to help a performer master specific technical difficulties
  • Nocturne: In French, “night piece” whichis usually slow, lyrical and intimate
franz schubert 1797 1828
Franz Schubert1797-1828
  • Born in Vienna the son of a schoolmaster
  • Composed numerous masterpieces in his late teens
  • Master of the art song and composer of Erlkonig (The Elf King)
robert schumann 1810 1856
Robert Schumann1810-1856
  • Known for his autobiographical works that are highly programmatic
  • Wanted to be a virtuoso pianist but an unfortunate finger injury led him to a career in composition
  • Founder and editor of the New Journalof Music
robert schumann cont
Robert Schumann(cont.)
  • Married his piano teacher’s daughter, Clara Wieck, a concert pianist and composer
  • Mental and physical health deteriorated in his later years. He died two years after he was committed to an asylum
  • Known for Carnival, Scenes fromChildhood and Fantasy Pieces
clara weick schumann 1819 1896
Clara Weick Schumann1819-1896
  • Concert pianist, composer and wife and mother of 7 children
  • Promoted her husbands works
  • Compositions include songs, piano pieces, a piano concerto, a piano trio, and three Romances for violin and piano
frederic chopin 1810 1849
Frederic Chopin1810-1849
  • Polish nationalist composer who wrote almost exclusively for the piano
  • Had a well know love affair with poet, novelist, George Sand
  • Died of Tuberculosis at age 39
  • Composer of Nocturne in E Flat Major, La Revolutionary Etude and Polonaise in A Flat Major
niccolo paganini 1782 1840
Niccolo Paganini1782-1840
  • Italian violin virtuoso who supposedly sold his soul to the devil in exchange for his incredible musical techniques
franz liszt 1811 1886
Franz Liszt1811-1886
  • Handsome, magnetic, ladies’ man
  • Hungarian piano virtuoso / composer
  • Became religious in his later years and became an unordained priest of the Catholic church, composing masses and oratorios
peter ilyich tchaikovsky 1840 to 1893
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky1840 to 1893
  • Most famous Russian Composer
  • Very gloomy personality (concealed homosexual)
  • Patron Nadezdha von Meck paid him a stipend for 14 years so that he could compose but ended the relationship abruptly with no explanation
tchaikovsky cont
Tchaikovsky (cont.)
  • First great orchestral work: Romeo and Juliet (concert overture)
  • Greatest hits: 3 fantasy ballets- Nutcracker, Sleeping Beauty and Swan Lake, Symphony 4 and 6, Piano Concerto in B Minor, violin concerto, 1812 Overture and 8 operas
hector berlioz
Hector Berlioz
  • French composer who left a career in medicine for one in music
  • Fascination with Shakespeare
  • Wrote a semi autobiographical work:Symphonie Fantastique
  • Known for innovative orchestrations
hector berlioz cont
Hector Berlioz (cont.)
  • Greatest hits: dramatic symphony:Romeo and Juliet, dramatic legend: Damnation of Faust, Requiem, and Symphony Fantastique
bedrich smetana
Bedrich Smetana
  • Czech nationalist composer who incorporated Bohemian folk music and legends into his compositions
  • Became deaf at age 50 but continued to compose
smetana cont
Smetana (cont.)
  • Famous works include a cycle of 6 symphonic poems called “Ma Vlast” -”My Country”
  • “The Moldau” is one of the six symphonic poems: it depicts Bohemia’s main river as it flows through the countryside
antonin dvorak 1841 1904
Antonin Dvorak1841-1904
  • Followed Smetana as leading Czech nationalist composer
  • Father was an innkeeper and butcher-Antonin left home to study music in Prague by playing in an opera orchestra directed by Smetana
  • Johannes Brahms launched his career
  • Became famous by age 36
  • Went to New York in 1892 to become director of the National Conservatory of Music
  • Here in the U.S. he encouraged American composers to incorporate American folk songs and spirituals
felix mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
  • Classical composer of the Romantic era
  • Born into a wealthy family
  • Child prodigy: mastered the piano by age 9, composed symphonies, concertos, sonatas and vocal works by age 13
mendelssohn cont
Mendelssohn (cont.)
  • Had a sister, Fanny, to whom he was very close. She was also a musician and composed. She and Felix shared a deep love of Shakespeare
  • Despite normal and happy life he died at age 38.
  • Greatest hits: Midsummer Night’s Dream (incidental music), Violin Concerto in E minor, The Hebrides (overture), the Italian and Scottish symphonies, and Elijah (oratorio)
giuseppe verdi 1813 1901
Giuseppe Verdi1813-1901
  • Known as Italy’s greatest opera writer
  • Because of his opera, Nabucco he is a symbol of Italy’s independence
  • He also wrote Aida (commissioned for the opening of the Suez Canal), Otello, La Traviata, Rigolleto and Falstaff
giacomo puccini 1858 1924
Giacomo Puccini1858-1924
  • Took over where Verdi left off
  • He wrote La Boheme, Tosca, Turnadot and Madame Butterfly
  • Operas featured exoticism, very true to life people put in situations that stirred strong emotions, very singable and emotional melodies
richard wagner 1813 1883
Richard Wagner1813-1883
  • German nationalist composer famous for his music dramas (opera)
  • Believed that the audience should be overwhelmed by music and drama and that the libretto, music, sets, costumes, lighting and directing should come under one guiding hand: his own
wagner cont
Wagner (cont.)
  • Incorporated the leitmotif: a fragment of melody that represents a person, place or thing in the drama
  • Greatest Hits:The Ring Cycle, Tristan and Isolde and Taunhauser.