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The Rock Cycle

The Rock Cycle

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The Rock Cycle

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  1. Chapter 4 - Rocks: Mineral Mixtures The Rock Cycle • Rock is: • Naturally occurring • Solid • Mixture of one or more minerals • Organic • Rocks are always changing. • The process by which new rock forms from old rock material is called the rock cycle. 4 ½ min The Rock Cycle

  2. The Rock Cycle 4 min NASA Our World - Rock Cycle

  3. 9 ½  min Three rock types and Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle • Rock is an important natural resource – for making buildings, monuments, and roads. The Georgia Guidestones - in Elbert County, Georgia, stands a huge granite monument.

  4. 9 ½ min  Weathering, Erosion & Deposition  Processes that Make and Destroy Rock • Weathering • Process in which water , wind, ice and heat break down rock • Sediments are small pieces of broken rock.

  5. Processes that Make and Destroy Rock • Erosion • Process by which sediments are removed by water , wind, ice and gravity

  6. Processes that Make and Destroy Rock • Deposition • Process in which sediments are moved by erosion and are dropped into bodies of water and other low-lying areas

  7. Processes that Make and Destroy Rock • Uplift • is movement within the Earth that causes rock to be moved to the surface.

  8. 8 ½ min Geology Kitchen – Rock Types Rock Classification • The lithosphere (Earth’s crust) is made of rock. • Rocks are divided into three main classes based on: • how the rock is formed • composition (chemical makeup) • texture

  9. 6 min Geology Kitchen – Igneous Rocks IGNEOUS ROCK • Igneous means “fire” • Forms from melted rock that cools and solidifies. • Magma is hot, liquid rock located below the Earth’s surface. • Granite is a type of igneous rock which forms from magma. Granite

  10. IGNEOUS ROCK • Lava is hot, liquid rock that reaches the Earth’s surface. • Lava flows from volcanoes or hot spots in the Earth’s crust. • Basalt is a type of igneous rock which forms from lava. Devils Tower National Monument, WY

  11. IGNEOUS ROCK • Depending on how fast the melted rock cools and the mineral composition, igneous rock looks different from each other. • The longer it takes for the magma or lava to cool, the more time mineral crystals have to grow. Granite – feldspar (pink), quartz (white) and mica (black) Rhyolite

  12. IGNEOUS ROCK Pumice rocks are igneous rocks which were formed when lava cooled quickly above ground. A very porous, froth-like volcanic rock that has long been used as an abrasive in cleaning, polishing, and scouring compounds.

  13. SEDIMENTARYROCK Shale • At the Earth’s surface, wind and moving water break rock into smaller pieces called sediments. • Over a long period of time, layers of sediments build up. • The weight of the layers compact (presses) and cements the sediments together.

  14. 4 min Geology Kitchen – Sedimentary Rocks SEDIMENTARY ROCK • Sandstone is formed from sand that has been compacted and cemented together. • The most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock is its layers of rock or strata.

  15. SEDIMENTARY ROCK • 75% of the Earth’s surface is made up of sedimentary rock, which forms at or near the surface.

  16. SEDIMENTARY ROCK • Most limestone forms from the remains of animals that once lived in the ocean. • The animal remains become cemented together to form fossiliferous limestone.

  17. SEDIMENTARY ROCK • Coal is an organic, sedimentary rock which forms underground. • When decomposed plant material is buried beneath sediment, it changed into coal with heat and pressure. • The process takes millions of years. It is a nonrenewable resource.

  18. 4 min Geology Kitchen – Metamorphic Rocks METAMORPHIC ROCK • Sometimes surface rock gets buried deep inside the Earth. • This happens due to the shifting of the tectonic plates. Gneiss

  19. METAMORPHIC ROCK • Rocks go through a process called metamorphism. • “meta” –change • “morphos” – shape.

  20. METAMORPHIC ROCK • Temperature and pressure can cause chemical changes in rock. • Sedimentary and igneous rock can become metamorphic. • Metamorphic rock can become another type of metamorphic rock. Pink Marble Mansion, Marble Quarry, Tate, GA

  21. METAMORPHIC ROCK • Gneiss (nice) and marble are types of metamorphic rock. Marble Gneiss

  22. Chapter 4 - Rocks: Mineral Mixtures 4 ½ min Mr. Parr Rock Cycle Song Website 4 min Mr. Lee Rap Rock Song Great Interactive Website 1 ½ min Rock Cycle Rap 4 ½ min Rock Cycle Jelly Bean Experiment 3 min Mr. Parr Types of Rocks 3 ½  Mr. Parr World of Rocks 4  min Rock Cycle Song – Gang ’am Style PowerPoint Presentation - 2013 M. Brumbaugh TCMS