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Gender and CCTs in South Asia Education . Nazmul Chaudhury Washington DC, October 3 2007. Bangladesh Female Secondary School Assistance Program (FSSAP):. Demand-Side Intervention to Increase Female Secondary School Enrollment

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gender and ccts in south asia education

Gender and CCTs in South Asia Education

Nazmul Chaudhury

Washington DC, October 3 2007

bangladesh female secondary school assistance program fssap
Bangladesh Female Secondary School Assistance Program (FSSAP):
  • Demand-Side Intervention to Increase Female Secondary School Enrollment
  • Supply-Side Intervention to Increase the ‘Private’ Supply of Secondary Schools
  • (Tiny sum of) Cash is Deposited in Female Pupil’s Account Conditional upon her:
    • Regular Attendance, Passing Grade, Remaining Unmarried till 18/Completion
what was the impact of fssap
What was the Impact of FSSAP?
  • No Baseline nor Randomized phasing of program implementation, so establishing causality is difficult, but it was ‘correlated’ with:
    • A rapid increase in share of female enrollment (from 33% to 53% in less than a decade)
dramatic supply side response
Dramatic Supply-Side Response
  • ‘Feminization’ of Madrasa High Schools
    • Registration
    • Introduction of Modern Curriculum
    • Coed Education
  • ‘Socialization’ Impact of Madrasa Schooling
concerns about fssap
Concerns about FSSAP …
  • Unintended Consequences
    • Did it adversely effect Male Enrollment?
  • What about Quality?
    • Did the rapid enrollment/supply response lower overall school quality?
  • What was the motive of supply providers?
    • Altruism?
    • A way of doling out jobs?
next steps for the new version
Next Steps for the New Version …
  • Systematic Tracking and Improvement in Quality
  • Continuing Governance Reforms
  • Poverty Targeting to include both Poor Girls and Boys
demonstration effect of fssap in sa
Demonstration effect of FSSAP in SA …
  • Punjab (Pakistan) Female Secondary School Stipend Component of the Education Sector Reform Program
    • 15 low-literacy districts
    • Only Public Secondary Schools
    • 9% increase in female enrollment
  • Sind (Pakistan) Female Stipends
    • Very, very difficult situation …
general issues to think about
General Issues to Think About …
  • How large to make the cash transfer ?
    • $ 0.3 per month in Bangladesh
    • $3 per month in Punjab
  • How to address Supply-side Constraints?
  • How to Target Poor? Boys as well ?
  • How to influence non-education outcomes as well?