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Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders

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Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Largest solid organ in the body Plays role in: Digestion Absorption Metabolism. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Plays role in Blood clotting Manufacture of important chemicals

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anatomy and physiology
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Liver
    • Largest solid organ in the body
    • Plays role in:
      • Digestion
      • Absorption
      • Metabolism
anatomy and physiology1
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Liver
    • Plays role in
      • Blood clotting
      • Manufacture of important chemicals
      • Storage of nutrients
anatomy and physiology2
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Gallbladder stores bile until needed
  • Pancreas produces and excretes most of the intestinal enzymes
common signs and symptoms
Common Signs and Symptoms
  • Liver Disease
    • Jaundice
    • Pain is the most common symptom
diagnostic tests
Diagnostic Tests
  • Liver function tests measure bilirubin, albumin, alkaline phosphatase
  • Ultrasound, X-rays, CAT scan
  • Biopsy
  • Blood tests to measure pancreatic function
liver diseases
Liver Diseases
  • Hepatitis
    • Inflammation of the liver
    • Causes include chemical actions of drugs, toxic substances, chronic alcoholism, group of viruses
    • Viral hepatitis is the most prevalent
liver diseases1
Liver Diseases
  • Hepatitis
    • Symptoms
      • Jaundice
      • Malaise
      • Anorexia
      • Myalgia
liver diseases2
Liver Diseases
  • Hepatitis
    • Symptoms
      • Fever
      • Abdominal pain
      • Dark-colored urine (hepatomegaly)
      • Clay or light-colored stools
liver diseases3
Liver Diseases
  • Hepatitis
    • Treatment
      • Rest
      • Good nutrition
    • Prevention
      • Good hygiene
      • Special care when handling needles and body fluids
liver diseases4
Liver Diseases
  • Viral Hepatitis occurs in five types
    • A, B, C, D, E
  • Hepatitis A: benign; spread by oral-fecal contact
  • Hepatitis B: formerly called “serum hepatitis” spread by blood, urine, feces, saliva, and semen
liver diseases5
Liver Diseases
  • Hepatitis C: spread by blood or sex
  • Hepatitis D: “delta virus” requires presence of hepatitis B to replicate
  • Hepatitis E: spread through fecal-oral contact, commonly due to water contamination
liver diseases6
Liver Diseases
  • Cirrhosis
    • Chronic, irreversible, degenerative
    • Replacement of normal liver cells with nonfunctioning scar tissue called “hobnail liver”
liver diseases7
Liver Diseases
  • Cirrhosis
    • Most common cause is chronic alcoholism
    • Symptoms
      • Loss of appetite
      • Nausea
      • Indigestion
      • Weakness and weight loss
liver disease
Liver Disease
  • Liver Cancer
    • Primary and benign tumors of liver are rare
    • Usually discovered late or end stage
    • Diagnosis confirmed by biopsy
    • Treatment may involve surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
gallbladder diseases
Gallbladder Diseases
  • Cholecystitis
    • Inflammation of gallbladder usually caused by obstruction of bile due to gallstone
    • Diagnosis is made by ultrasound, cholecystogram
gallbladder diseases1
Gallbladder Diseases
  • Cholecystitis
    • Symptoms
      • Mild to severe RUQ pain
      • Nausea and vomiting after eating
    • Treatment surgical excision
gallbladder diseases2
Gallbladder Diseases
  • Cholelithiasis
    • Gallstones in gallbladder or bile ducts
    • Symptoms
      • Nausea
      • Vomiting
      • RUQ pain following meals with fat
gallbladder diseases3
Gallbladder Diseases
  • Cholelithiasis
    • Risk factors include excessive weight, increasing age, female
gallbladder diseases4
Gallbladder Diseases
  • Cholelithiasis
    • 5 F’s of cholelithiasis
      • Female
      • Fair complexion
      • Fat
      • Fertile
      • Forty or older
pancreas diseases
Pancreas Diseases
  • Pancreatitis - Inflammation of pancreas
    • Symptoms
      • Severe abdominal pain radiating to back
      • Nausea
      • Vomiting
      • Diaphoresis
      • Tachycardia
pancreas diseases1
Pancreas Diseases
  • Pancreatitis
    • Symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are similar to acute
    • Diagnosis is based on high blood amylase
    • Treatment and prognosis depends on cause
pancreas diseases2
Pancreas Diseases
  • Pancreas Cancer
    • Usually adenocarcinoma occurring in head of pancreas
    • Symptoms:
      • Abdominal pain
      • Back pain
      • Nausea
      • Vomiting
pancreas diseases3
Pancreas Diseases
  • Pancreas Cancer
    • Symptoms
      • Loss of appetite
      • Weakness
      • Jaundice
      • Fatigue
pancreas diseases4
Pancreas Diseases
  • Pancreas Cancer
    • Diagnosis confirmed by biopsy
    • Treatment
      • Surgical resection
      • Radiation and chemotherapy