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Congress declared war on Japan after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Within two weeks the U.S. was at war with the Axis Powers – Germany, Japan and Italy.
This event started World War II • A. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor • B. The German invasion of Poland • C. The Soviet agreement with Germany • D. None of the above
This event brought the U.S. into World War II • A. The sinking of the Lusitania • B. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor • C. German submarines in the Gulf of Mexico • D. The Miracle at Dunkirk
The U.S. had been mobilizing for war for a while. 1940- FDR had ordered 50,000 warplanes per year. Most industries had already converted to war production. Sept. 1940 – Congress passed the Selective Service and Training Act.
U.S. Army was completely segregated. White recruits and African Americans did not train together. Barracks, mess halls and bathrooms were separated. Most African American units were led by white officers. They were given non-combat assignments – construction, supply and support.
“Double V” campaign – urged African Americans to fight for victory over Hitler and victory over racism at home. 1941 – Army Air Force created 1st African American unit. Pilots trained at Tuskegee, Alabama – became known as the Tuskegee Airmen.
The Double V campaign encouraged African Americans to fight for • A. Victory gardens • B. Victory over Hitler and poverty • C. Victory over Hitler and racism • D. Victory over Germany and Japan
African American units fought bravely and earned many honors. By 1948 – military was fully integrated.
1942 – Congress allowed women in the military. They established the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) Became Women’s Army Corps (WAC)
Women worked in factories doing jobs that were traditionally men’s jobs. “Rosie the Riveter” became the symbol for women in manufacturing plants making airplanes, tanks, etc.
Many workers migrated across the U.S. in search of jobs. Growth in California and southern cities created a region known as the “Sunbelt”.
The “Great Migration”, which had begun during World War I, continued as African Americans moved north looking for jobs in industrial centers. Led to violence and race riots – some of the worst in Detroit.
Most people migrated in the early 20th century • A. To buy cheap land • B. To practice freedom of religion • C. To avoid going to the army • D. To find a job
“Zoot Suit” riots occurred in Los Angeles between whites and Mexican Americans.
Anger against Japanese Americans occurred after the Pearl Harbor attack. Most Japanese Americans lived on the west coast. 1942 – FDR gave the order for the War Dept. to declare regions military zones and relocate anyone they chose.
The Supreme Court later ruled that loyal Americans could not be held against their will. Japanese Americans were released in 1945.
442nd Regimental Combat Team – all Japanese American unit. Most highly decorated unit in World War II.
During World War II, Japanese Americans were moved to • A. Concentration camps • B. Internment camps • C. Extermination camps • D. All of the above
Office of Price Adm. (OPA) set prices to stabilize the economy. Rationing limited the supply of meat, sugar, gas, etc. Victory gardens raised crops for the army. Scrap metal drives generated needed materials.
U.S. government spent 300 billion dollars to produce goods for the war effort. Raised taxes to pay for the war. Issued war bonds.