physical development fine motor skills perception pg 108 112 n.
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Physical Development Fine Motor Skills & Perception pg.108-112

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Physical Development Fine Motor Skills & Perception pg.108-112. Stephanie. Reaching & Grasping. Newborns have little apparent control of their hands. At ~4months infants can successfully reach for objects. Appears clumsy. As infants grow, their reaches have fewer movements.

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reaching grasping
Reaching & Grasping
  • Newborns have little apparent control of their hands.
  • At ~4months infants can successfully reach for objects.
    • Appears clumsy.
  • As infants grow, their reaches have fewer movements.
    • More smooth and direct.
reaching grasping1
Reaching & Grasping
  • Most 4 month olds just use their fingers to grab objects.
  • By 7 or 8 months most infants use their thumbs to hold objects.
  • At about the same time infants begins to position their hands to make grasping easier.
    • Infants do not need to see their hand to position it correctly
reaching grasping2
Reaching & Grasping
  • 4 months old use both hands because their motions are not coordinated
    • Each hand seems to have a mind of its own
  • At roughly 5 to 6 months, infants can coordinate the motions of their hands so that each hand performs different actions that serve a common goal.
fine motor skills
Fine Motor Skills
  • At 6 months, most infants experiment w/finger foods.
    • The can easily pick up the food but getting the food in the mouth is more difficult.
  • Around the 1st birthday many parents allow their children to experiment w/spoons.
    • First they simply play w/ the spoon
    • Then they learn to fill the spoon by placing it into the bowl until it is filled
    • By 2 years old children learn to rotate their wrist to fill the spoon as adults do.
fine motor skills1
Fine Motor Skills
  • Preschoolers are able to make more precise and delicate movements to care for themselves.
    • 2 or 3 year olds can use zippers but not use buttons.
    • 3 or 4 year olds can fasten buttons and take off their clothes.
    • Most 5 year olds can dress and undress themselves, except for tying shoes, which is typical at age 6
fine motor skills2
Fine Motor Skills
  • Greater fine motor coordination leads to improvements in writing and drawing.
    • 2 year olds will scribble , expressing delight in simple lines
    • 4 or 5 year olds are able to depict recognizable objects.
  • Handedness is the preference of one hand over the other.
  • 90% of the people worldwide prefer to use their right hand.
  • 10% are left handed
  • A relatively small percentage of people are truly ambidextrous.
  • When babies reach for objects they don’t seem to prefer one hand over the other
    • They use their left and right hand interchangeably
    • 9 month olds use their left and right hand equally but by 13 months most use their right hand.
    • By age 2, the child’s hand preference is clear.
    • By age 5 children only use their non-preferred hand when their preferred hand is busy. At this time reversing handedness is very difficult.
  • Determination of handedness:
    • Heredity – Children with right handed parents are likely to be right handed. If a child has a parent or grandparent that is left handed, there is a possibility that they will be left handed.
    • Industry –Utensils and other objects favor the right hand.
    • Culture – Some cultures such as Islam and China forbid or look down upon the use of the left hand.
smell taste
Smell & Taste
  • Smell and taste are the most mature senses at birth.
  • Newborns act positively to pleasant smells and negatively to unpleasant smells.
  • Newborns can differentiate salty, sour, bitter, and sweet. ( Most infants seem to have a sweet tooth)
smell and taste
Smell and Taste
  • Infants are sensitive to changes in the taste of breast milk that reflect a mother’s diet.
  • Infants will nurse more after their mother has consumed a sweet substance such as vanilla.