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Homo mobilus II. – the mobile man II. Aleksander Dye. started at NKI Distance Education in 2001 in the R&D department as a system developer. Working with the development of SESAM - the LMS (learning management system) of NKI

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homo mobilus ii

Homo mobilus II

– the mobile man II

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

aleksander dye
Aleksander Dye
  • started at NKI Distance Education in 2001 in the R&D department as a system developer. Working with the development of SESAM - the LMS (learning management system) of NKI
  • comprehensive knowledge about SESAM and how to adapt it to different needs.
  • have been part of the research team on mobile learning since 2001 being part of four projects on mLearning.
  • in 2007 focus changed to research in the field of distance education and is now a researcher at NKI working with mobile learning as well as being project manager for the development of SESAM.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

nki distance education
NKI Distance education
  • NKI Distance Education (www.nki.no)
  • Online distance education since 1987 (100,000 enrolments)
  • Broad specter of subjects from secondary to master level
  • One of Europe’s larges providers of online distance education
  • About 9000 online students in at least 34 countries
  • 54 % women
  • More than 450 courses online
  • Startup every day
  • Individual progress plans
  • Always room for more students
  • Exams at local schools and embassies

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

mobil learning in the beginning
Mobil learning in the beginning

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

technological challanges
Technological challanges

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

today
Today

X

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

possible today but do we want it
Possible today, but do we want it…

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

important aims of the m learning projects
Important aims of the m-learning projects
  • Extend distribution of learning materials and communication to lighter equipment
  • Increase the flexibility of distance education
  • Refining the environment to meet the needs to the ‘mobile learner’
  • Increase the level of ‘universal accessibility’

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

project 1
Project 1

From e-learning to m-learning (2000-2003)

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

our definition of mobile learning
Our definition of mobile learning

mLearning is learning that can take place anytime, anywhere with the help of a mobile computer device. The device must be capable of presenting learning content and providing wireless two-way communication between teacher(s) and student(s). Typically, an educational organization administrates both the course content and the communication services.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

designing and trying out the environment for mobile learners first project
Designing and trying out the Environment for Mobile Learners - First project
  • Studying online and offline

Technical solution:

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

results and conclusions first project
Results and conclusions - first project
  • Working from home, the office and on travel
  • Increased feeling of flexibility
  • Few technical problems
  • Readability was good
  • Access to forum and pre-written messages
  • LMS should facilitate the mobile learner

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

project 2
Project 2

Incorporating mobile learning into mainstream education (2005-2007)

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

first year developments 2 nd project
First year developments – 2nd project
  • Development of first year in additional version
  • Texts and graphics specifically developed for small screens
  • Text perfectly adapted to the screenofthe PDA
  • Multi-media elements readable but not satisfactory

Screenshots from the PDA of multi-media multiple-choice

question and “drag and drop” assignment.

Screenshots from PC from

of PDA version.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

second year developing the mlms
Second year: Developing the mLMS

An always-online solution would possibly increase the quality of the services for mobile learners

  • High bandwidth gives fast downloading of course content and use of audio, video and advanced graphics
  • Independence of synchronization with desktop PC
  • Access to resources on the Internet at all times
  • Easy access to e-mail at all times
  • Possibilities for online assessment and assignments
  • Options for easier co-operation with fellow students
  • Possibilities for synchronous communication, chat and IP telephony
  • ADSL or free access to WLAN give control over costs

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

examples
Examples

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

examples17
Examples

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

syncronous communication
Syncronous communication
  • Microsoft MSN Messenger
  • PocketSkype (IP telephony, instant messages)

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

example course forum
Example: Course forum

Screen shot from the discussions forum using an ordinary browser

Screen shot from the discussions forum on the PDA

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

mobile learning the next generation of learning
Mobile learning: the next generation of learning
  • Not one course as course #2, but all courses are available via the PDA
  • Redirect to specially designed front page for PDA’s
  • Structural changes in layout
  • Course menu moved to the top

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

mobile learning the next generation of learning development issues with course 2
Mobile learning: the next generation of learningDevelopment issues with Course 2
  • Removing tables
  • Layout by CSS
    • @media-types
  • Images and illustrations still a challenge
    • Reduced size = reduced readability

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

mobile learning the next generation of learning @media types
Mobile learning: the next generation of learning @media-types:
  • /*css for screen*/@media screen{ #pageContent {margin-left: 3px;font-size: 94%;padding: 0px; width:80%; } #courseMenu {margin-top: 0px; float: right;width: 18%; }/*END css for screen*/
  • }@media handheld{ /* css for handheld*/ #pageContent {margin-top: 1px;margin-left: 1px;font-size: 120%;padding: 0px;width: 95%; } #courseMenu {margin-top: 0px;width: 18%; }/* END css for handheld */}

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

conclusions after 2 nd project
Conclusions after 2nd project
  • Mobile learning has resulted in better solutions for serving distance online learners in general
  • Cost efficiency considerations do not allow for developing parallel versions of courses
  • Courses must be developed, presented and distributed in ways that allow both mobile and not mobile learners to participate in the same course
  • Course materials can be accessed both by standard and mobile technology with acceptable quality of all content elements
  • Interaction with course content and multi-media materials and communication with tutors and fellow students function adequately both through standard and mobile technology
  • There are difficulties in presenting graphical materials on small screens
  • Test students found equipment easy to use – test persons with technical background less enthusiastic
  • Mobile learning increases access and flexibility and possibilities for cooperation

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

project 3
Project 3

Incorporating mobile learning into mainstream education (2005-2007)

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

sms example 1 prospective registrations jan 2006
SMS example 1. Prospective registrations Jan. 2006
  • Via www.nki.no: 6124
  • Via SMS: 3611
  • Via telephone: 144
  • 512 students enrolled without being registered as prospectives

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

sms example 2 data quality
SMS example 2. Data quality
  • We struggle with incorrect e-mail addresses to students.
  • September 2006 e-mail newsletter to our 7445 online students.
  • 42 students with the address not@registered.
  • Newsletter to the remaining 7403 students.
  • Error messages from 421 students (6.2 % errors).
  • Mobile numbers for 207 of these 421 students.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

sms example 2
SMS example 2…
  • SMS to 207, requesting them to correct their e-mail addresses.
  • 52 error messages
  • 155 SMS messages resulted in 108 corrected e-mail addresses.
  • About 70% success rate…

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

conclutions
Conclutions
  • Students wants information
  • SMS is a good channel
  • SMS works for ”everyone”, age, sex, education and so on
  • 85% knows about internet possibility (31.08.2007)
    • 31% of them uses it
    • 11% use it at NKI’s site (of the ones who knows about it on NKIs pages)

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

project 4
Project 4

The role of mobile learning in European education(2006-2008)

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

the role of mobile learning in european education 4 th project
The role of mobile learning in European education – 4th project
  • Survey on status and trends of mobile learning internationally and in Europe
  • Continued developments of mobile learning services in the NKI LMS and distance learning systems – developments hindered by changing the technological platform of SESAM
  • Survey on NKI online students access to mobile technology and attitudes towards use of mobile phones in their studies

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

results from the student survey
Results from the student survey

Technology and access

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

results from the student survey32
Results from the student survey

Views on SMS Services

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

results from the student survey33
Results from the student survey

Using the mobile phone in online study

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

mobile learning at nki discussions and conclusions
Mobile learning at NKI – discussions and conclusions
  • mLearning has increased quality for all
  • Need for one version of a course
  • Following standards ease the adaption of materials
  • The ideal device is still to be found

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

mobile learning around the world
Mobile learningaroundthe world

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

slide36

6.5 billion

3.3 billion subscribers

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

advantages
ADVANTAGES
  • Available
  • Not in use in education yet
  • Phones will be more powerful

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

disadvantages
DISADVANTAGES

Data input

Small screen

Batterylife

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

the role of mobile learning in european education
The role of mobile learning in European education
  • An in-depth analyses of the success of mobile learning in 9 international countries: 178 pages(Australia, Canada, China, India, Japan, Korea, South Africa, Taiwan and the USA)
  • An in-depth analyses of the success of mobile learning in 28 European countries: 300 pages(27 members of the European Union and Norway)
  • Both are available at the project website

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

australia
AUSTRALIA

Current mLearning initiatives within the education and training sector of Australia are characterised by fragmentation. Several universities and education faculty staff have pockets of research, initiatives and enthusiasm; however their work is essentially focused on the Higher Education sector, providing limited awareness of research outcomes or benefit to K-12, VET or life-long-learning developments.

The Australian Government has taken no significant interest in developing or optimizing networks or mobile systems to support mLearning.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

canada
CANADA

In Canada, the first short experiment took place in 2001, conducted at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology and using PDAs.  Since then, different universities have been experimenting with podcasting of lectures.

Athabasca University, which hosted the International Mobile Learning Conference in 2006, is leading in mobile learning research where it has created a mobile-enabled digital reading room with materials accessible using a variety of different mobile devices.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

china
CHINA

China is not yet the country of mobile learners, but it has all the potentials to incorporate mlearning into mainstream education in the future. The mobile telecommunication sector is rapidly growing, just like the rate of internet access within the population. The coastal and the special administration areas are very well developed, but the great inland territories still need tremendous amount of infrastructural investment. There are several companies, universities, research institutions active on the field of ICT supported learning, providing a good basis for valuable research activities in mobile learning.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

india
INDIA

Companies in India are receiving contracts for the development of mobile learning materials from institutions in Europe and in America. Two examples of these mobile learning development companies are given here: ZMQ Software Development Systems and Aptara.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

japan
JAPAN

Japanese researchers use the concepts ‘pervasive learning’ and ‘ubiquitous learning’ to emphasise that mobile devices often are applied in learning situations taking place at a place directly related to the object of learning. Often, mobile learning is organised as collaborative learning, focusing on sharing knowledge and social knowledge building.

There is high government attention to develop Japan into an ubiquitous learning society where mobile devices are widely used for increasing welfare and life-long learning for all. There are some universities specifically working on the development of solutions for mobile learning: Tokushima University, University of Tokya, Oita University and Kobe University.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

republic of korea
REPUBLIC OF KOREA

The Republic of Korea is in the forefront in Asia and in the world in adopting new technology for learning. For instance, it has been far ahead of Japan in introducing broadband access in the homes. The Korean government has actively tried to influence the development of Korea into an ubiquitous learning society. There are examples of mobile learning activities on all educational levels.

The Ministry of Education has including mobile learning as one section of the nation-wide educational software context. Korean universities encourage the development of Internet learning that uses mobile technology and both elementary and secondary schools use mobile technology in learning.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

south africa
SOUTH AFRICA

Work at the University of Pretoria and at Tshwane University of Technology gave South Africa a leadership role in the field of mobile learning which has now been built on by other institutions in the country.

The University of Pretoria work provided mobile learning for students enrolled in a Post-graduate Diploma in Education who were all teachers in rural schools in South Africa. These students had no access to email or to e-learning but all had mobile phones which were used successfully by the University in their education.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

taiwan
TAIWAN

Taiwan is a small island, but very strong when it comes to mobile learning. The country already has a very good mobile telecommunication infrastructure, which is under continuous development due to the strong commitment of the government.

Schools and universities are picking up mobile educational services based on the highly developed telecommunication infrastructure. But not only the usage of these services is remarkable in Taiwan, but also the amount of research activities, carried out by various universities and research organisations.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

united states of america
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

In a number of US universities the web portals are now able to send administrative messages to their students, using new channels of communication based on mobile devices (ipods, mobile phones, smart phones, PDAs, etc).

One of the main strategies for the development of the m-learning field in Universities seems to be based on the availability of devices for students free of charge. The Universities are offering iPods, MP3 readers, PDAs or other recent devices to their students. Those devices have already pre-loaded contents with university based information and then students can use them to download other files from the University Library, or from the university portals, or from the teachers’ podcasts.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

mobile learning in europe
Mobile learning in Europe
  • UK in the lead and defineslevel 1

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

europe level 1
EUROPE LEVEL 1
  • The United Kingdom has at least 4 areas of provision: primary and secondary schools, universities, government departments and corporate providers.
  • Provision at primary and secondary school level is vibrant.
  • Many UK universities are active in the field
  • UK companies are involved
  • Finally 1000 British delegates are expected at the Handheld Learning conference to be held in London in October 2008.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

europe level 2
EUROPE LEVEL 2
  • Level 2 consists of countries in which there has been mobile learning activity mainly in the form of participation in European Commission funded projects.
  • Austria, Bulgaria (notably the University of Plovdiv), Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Hungary (notably Corvinus University of Budapest), Ireland (notably Ericsson Education Ireland), Italy (many university and government research centre projects), Netherlands, Norway (notably NKI), Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

mobile learning in denmark paulsen and rekkedal 2008
Mobile learning in Denmark(Paulsen and Rekkedal, 2008)

The eleven projects funded by the Ministry are:

  • Interactive continuing education for mobile health care workers in the Aabenraa Municipality (www.mobile.dk/design/)
  • Combining GIS, GPS and e-learning for municipal employees (www.mobil.elr.dk/index.php?page_id=157&menu_id=158)
  • Using media players to teach students at Ørestad upper secondary school (www.oerestadgym.dk)
  • Electronic visualisation to teach physicians at the University of Aalborg www.plan.aau.dk
  • Mobile e-learning for economical truck driving (www.vitusbering.dk)
  • Mobile e-learning tools for teaching of dyslectics (http://english.melfo.hum.ku.dk)
  • Mobile e-learning against obesity among young people (www.hillerod.dk/Nyheder/2007/Juli/mobile%20fitness.aspx)
  • Podcasting for e-learning in the university world (www.dpu.dk)
  • E-learning for farmers via podcasting and online radio (www.knowledgelab.dk/nyheder/landmobil
  • Mobile e-learning for treatment of cancer
  • Flexibility in further and continuing education at CVU Sønderjylland

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

slide53

Podcasting

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

video based m learning
Video basedm-learning
  • Vitus Bering Danmark received the international Boldic Award (www.nade-nff.no/default.pl?showArticle=141&pageId=194) for its mobile e-learning course on energy efficient driving for trucks and busses. The course includes 22 study units that are especially developed for mobile phones. The project is further described in a Danish article (Dalum 2007).

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

europe level 3
EUROPE LEVEL 3
  • Level 3 countries are making their first fragile steps in the field of mobile learning. 
  • Estonia, France, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Germany and Poland.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

europe level 4
EUROPE LEVEL 4
  • Level 4 countries are those in which little or no activity in mobile learning has been documented.
  • Belgium, Luxembourg and Romania.

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

conclusion
CONCLUSION
  • mLearning is on the move
  • Increased possibilities
  • Easier to adapt
  • Several services available
  • Tools are here, we need to learn to use them

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

thank you
Thank you!
  • NKI Distance Educationhttp://www.nki.no
  • NKI Internet Collegehttp://nettskolen.nki.no/
  • Presenters home pagehttp://www.dye.no/

Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark