Homo habilis Homosapiens Homoerectus
Domesticated animals and settled permanently (protection/help)
What did man do/ create? How would you define civilization?
Civilization • a form of culture characterized by cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology.
Requirements • Advanced cities-a city is a center of trade for a larger area.
Complex institutions - long-lasting pattern of organization in a community
Record keeping - as government, religion, and the economy became more complex and structured, people recognized the need to keep records.
Advanced technical skills- - new tools and techniques created to solve problems that emerge when large groups of people live together.
What are the different Ancient river-valley civilizations? • Mesopotamia • Nile • Indus • Early Chinese Let’s Recall
Lesson Objectives 1. Define civilization; 2. Explain how early civilizations were formed; 3. Enumerate the contributions of the two prominent African communities using a chart 4. Make a creative presentation (Transfer Task)
ENDURING UNDERSTANDING • The study of the continuum of human civilization reveals the ideals, beliefs, values, and institutions of its people.
Early African Kingdoms & Empires Lesson 1.4 Ancient Civilizations
African empires • North African empires • Kingdom of Kush • Kingdom of Axum • West African empires • Ghana empire • Mali empire • Songhai empire
Dyad Activity • Task To listen to the video clip and list down important notes about the different African civilizatons ( geography, resources, leaders with accomplishements, downfall) The information listed will be very useful in the next activity.
North African Kingdoms
Kingdom of Kush( 750 BCE – 150 CE) Nubia[modern-day Sudan]
The Emergence of Civilization • The Land • 5,000 miles long • Sahara is the great divide • Kush • Agriculture may have first appeared in Nubia rather than the lower Nile valley • Perhaps the site of the first true African kingdom • Nubia became an Egyptian tributary • Disintegration of the Egyptian New Kingdom (end of second millennium B.C.E.) resulted in the independent state of Kush • Kush became a major trading state • Little known about the society of Kush • Seems to have been widespread material prosperity
Kingdom of Kush • Located south of Egypt • Became subjects of Egypt • Became the 25th dynasty of the pharaohs of Egypt
Kingdom of Kush • Carried a lively trade with Arabia, India, Ethiopia
Christian Church, Lalibela[Ethiopia] Coptic Christian Priest
AXUM’SACHIEVEMENTS Built Stelae Controlled NE African Trade Written Language Terrace Farming Spread Christianity in No. & E. Africa
West African Empires & Civilizations
Ghana Empire [4c-11c] Gold “Money”, Ghana/Ivory Coast
Ghana empire • Developed in the markeplace of gold traders • The king owned all of the gold nuggets, the empire taxed all goods, including salt, gold, entering and leaving Ghana • Almoravids (Muslim group) spread Islam and invaded cities in Ghana not following the religion
Gold-Salt Trade Berbers SALT GOLD
Mali Empire [13c-15c] SALT GOLD
Sundiata [1210-1260] “Lion Prince”