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FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT PowerPoint Presentation
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FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT

FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT

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FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT

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  1. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Egypt continues to walk fine line b/w keeping good relations w/Us & maintaining image of a good Muslim state Nasser runs Egypt w/an iron fist (1952-70) & tries to use both US & SU for foreign aid while staying indep.: Britain uses Egypt as base for N. Afr. campaigns  Withdraws army to Canal zone in 1947 Anti-Br. feelings grow Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows King Farouk in Milit. coup (1952) Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence 1936- Farouk becomes king  Anglo-Eg tr. requiring Br. Troops to leave Eg. exc. for control of Suez Canal Creates United Arab Rep. W/Syria  Falls apart over who leads Nationalizes Suez Canal (1956)  War w/Isr, Br. & Fr  Nasser a hero to Arabs Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense Poses as champion of arabsvsIsr Crushed by Isr. In Six Day War (1967) Cracks down on rad. Muslims opposing his secular rule Faces growing pressure from rad. Muslims outside Eg. Milit. Coup kills Sadat (1981) Hosni Mubarek continues Sadat’s policies: Tries to develop Egypt’s econ. but peasants esp. suffer Maintains close relations w/US in return for milit. & financial support Attacks Isr in Yom Kippur War Badly defeated (1973) Anwar Sadat succeeds Nasser & at first follows his hard line policies vs. Israel 1st Arab leader to make peace w/Isr (1978)  Isr returns Sinai World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  2. Suez Canal

  3. In 1869, after 10 years of work by the French and Egyptian laborers, the Suez Canal joined the Mediterranean and Red Seas at a length of about 100 miles (161 km)

  4. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT

  5. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122)

  6. Egypt & the Sudan "We don't want to fight, but by jingo if we do We've got the ships, we've got the guns, and got the money too" Britain’s interest in Egypt lay with the Suez Canal, which opened in 1869. Originally, this canal was a joint venture between France and Egypt. However, the ruler of Egypt fell into debt and had to borrow money from British banks, using his shares in the canal as collateral for the loan. Unfortunately, he defaulted on the loan, and Britain took over the Egyptian half of the canal.

  7. More complex soc Harder to unite politically Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr. Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy. Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873 Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914) German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119) Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113) Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116) Several problems for Britain after 1870: Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will: Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas Provide new mkts. & resources Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

  8. However, Egypt was rapidly destabilizing, so Britain annexed it as a colony to protect its investment in the Suez. The British defeat the Egyptians at Tel-el-Kebir (1882) Alexandria, Egypt after the British naval bombardment in 1882

  9. All seemed safe until an engineer named Sam Baker published an article showing how Sudan, Egypt’s southern neighbor, could cut off Egypt’s lifeline: the Nile. As ridiculous as this fear was, it prompted Britain to take over Sudan as well. SUDAN

  10. In 1898, the Sudanese, led by a religious leader known as the Mahdi, rebelled against British rule. At Omdurman (9/2/1898), 20,000 British and Egyptian troops, supported by heavily armed gunboats, shattered the suicidal assaults of the Mahdist forces. Below, the surviving rebels flee, having lost 10,000 men as opposed to only 48 British soldiers.

  11. Many times, native forces had modern European weapons in such battles. However, they still lacked the tactics, discipline, and overall mindset needed to use them effectively.

  12. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122)

  13. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122)

  14. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122)

  15. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135)

  16. In 1935, Mussolini, encouraged by Hitler’s success, sent Italian forces into Ethiopia, using only the weakest of excuses to cover this blatant act of aggression. When the League of Nations threatened economic sanctions against Italy, Mussolini said a boycott on oil (which would have crippled his war machine) would mean war with the League's members. The League, without any real force to back it up, fell for this bluff.

  17. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense 1936- Farouk becomes king  Anglo-Eg tr. requiring Br. Troops to leave Eg. exc. for control of Suez Canal World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135)

  18. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense 1936- Farouk becomes king  Anglo-Eg tr. requiring Br. Troops to leave Eg. exc. for control of Suez Canal World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136)

  19. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Britain uses Egypt as base for N. Afr. campaigns  Withdraws army to Canal zone in 1947 Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense 1936- Farouk becomes king  Anglo-Eg tr. requiring Br. Troops to leave Eg. exc. for control of Suez Canal World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136)

  20. King Farouk of Egypt, whose corrupt regime tarnished the West’s reputation in the eyes of the Egyptian people and helped pave the way for Nasser’s takeover in the 1950s

  21. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Britain uses Egypt as base for N. Afr. campaigns  Withdraws army to Canal zone in 1947 Anti-Br. feelings grow Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows King Farouk in Milit. coup (1952) Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense 1936- Farouk becomes king  Anglo-Eg tr. requiring Br. Troops to leave Eg. exc. for control of Suez Canal World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136)

  22. Gamal Abdul Nasser, the charismatic officer who replaced Egypt’s king Farouk. Nasser was the first leader of a developing nation to play the superpowers against each other to get as much foreign aid as possible. He realized, that neither side cared how responsible a regime was as long as it lined up with their side in the Cold War.

  23. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Britain uses Egypt as base for N. Afr. campaigns  Withdraws army to Canal zone in 1947 Anti-Br. feelings grow Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows King Farouk in Milit. coup (1952) Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense 1936- Farouk becomes king  Anglo-Eg tr. requiring Br. Troops to leave Eg. exc. for control of Suez Canal World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  24. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Anti-Br. feelings grow Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows King Farouk in Milit. coup (1952) Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence 1936- Farouk becomes king  Anglo-Eg tr. requiring Br. Troops to leave Eg. exc. for control of Suez Canal Britain uses Egypt as base for N. Afr. campaigns  Withdraws army to Canal zone in 1947 Nationalizes Suez Canal (1956)  War w/Isr, Br. & Fr  Nasser a hero to Arabs Creates United Arab Rep. W/Syria  Falls apart over who leads Poses as champion of arabsvsIsr Crushed by Isr. In Six Day War (1967) Nasser runs Egypt w/an iron fist (1952-70) & tries to use both US & SU for foreign aid while staying indep.: World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  25. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Anti-Br. feelings grow Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows King Farouk in Milit. coup (1952) Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence 1936- Farouk becomes king  Anglo-Eg tr. requiring Br. Troops to leave Eg. exc. for control of Suez Canal Britain uses Egypt as base for N. Afr. campaigns  Withdraws army to Canal zone in 1947 Nationalizes Suez Canal (1956)  War w/Isr, Br. & Fr  Nasser a hero to Arabs Creates United Arab Rep. W/Syria  Falls apart over who leads Poses as champion of arabs vs Isr  Crushed by Isr. In Six Day War (1967) Nasser runs Egypt w/an iron fist (1952-70) & tries to use both US & SU for foreign aid while staying indep.: World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  26. Crowds cheer Nasser after he nationalizes the Suez Canal in 1956

  27. Israeli forces advance against Egypt in anticipation of British and French “intervention.”

  28. British and French forces ‘intervene” (in league with Israel) to secure the Suez Canal after Egypt’s leader, Nasser, seized it.

  29. President Eisenhower reacts angrily to British and French action in the Suez in October, 1956. Part of his frustration was because it distracted world attention from the Hungarian uprising, allowing Soviet forces to force Hungary back into the Warsaw Pact

  30. UN peacekeeping forces replace British forces in the Sinai in 1956.

  31. Leb- anon Syria Mediterranean Sea Iraq Israel Jordan Egypt Sinai Peninsula Saudi Arabia Red Sea Map of the Middle East showing the placement of UN peacekeeping forces (1956-67)

  32. A ship deliberately sunk in the Suez Canal to prevent any traffic from getting through

  33. A cartoon expressing Israeli feelings about their role in the Suez Crisis of 1956.

  34. Victims of the Suez Crisis of 1956

  35. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Anti-Br. feelings grow Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows King Farouk in Milit. coup (1952) Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence 1936- Farouk becomes king  Anglo-Eg tr. requiring Br. Troops to leave Eg. exc. for control of Suez Canal Britain uses Egypt as base for N. Afr. campaigns  Withdraws army to Canal zone in 1947 Nationalizes Suez Canal (1956)  War w/Isr, Br. & Fr  Nasser a hero to Arabs Creates United Arab Rep. W/Syria  Falls apart over who leads Poses as champion of arabs vs Isr  Crushed by Isr. In Six Day War (1967) Nasser runs Egypt w/an iron fist (1952-70) & tries to use both US & SU for foreign aid while staying indep.: World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  36. In 1958, Syrian leaders, fearing a communist takeover in their nation, called upon Nasser for help. The result was the United Arab Republic (UAR), a union of Egypt and Syria that lasted from 1958-61 under Nasser’s presidency with its capital in Cairo. Nasser’s ambition was to have the UAR include the whole Arab world. While communism was thwarted in Syria, its people felt increasingly like they were being treated as Egyptian subjects. Consequently, Syria withdrew from the UAR in 1961, although Egypt continued to use the name until after Nasser died in 1971.**

  37. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Anti-Br. feelings grow Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows King Farouk in Milit. coup (1952) Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence 1936- Farouk becomes king  Anglo-Eg tr. requiring Br. Troops to leave Eg. exc. for control of Suez Canal Britain uses Egypt as base for N. Afr. campaigns  Withdraws army to Canal zone in 1947 Nationalizes Suez Canal (1956)  War w/Isr, Br. & Fr  Nasser a hero to Arabs Creates United Arab Rep. W/Syria  Falls apart over who leads Poses as champion of arabs vs Isr  Crushed by Isr. In Six Day War (1967) Nasser runs Egypt w/an iron fist (1952-70) & tries to use both US & SU for foreign aid while staying indep.: World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  38. The Straits of Tiran controlled Israel’s access to the Red Sea and beyond. One of Nasser’s threats was to block it and cut Israel’s trade to the East.

  39. Israeli jets launch a pre-emptive air strike on Arab air fields which virtually decided the war’s outcome in its first twenty minutes (June 5, 1967)

  40. Egyptian planes destroyed on the ground in the pre-emptive air strike by the Israeli air force during the Six Day War in 1967

  41. What few Arab planes made into the air were quickly destroyed by Israeli pilots

  42. Israeli offensive (June, 1967) The Israeli offensive in 1967

  43. Having established air superiority in the opening minutes of the Six Day War, Israeli tanks and other ground forces swept quickly and easily to victory.

  44. Israelis at the Wailing Wall after taking the east half of Jerusalem in the Six Day War

  45. Cartoon showing Moshe Dayan, who commanded the Israeli forces during the Six Day War, as the Biblical hero, David slaying the Arab “Goliath”

  46. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Tries to develop Egypt’s econ. but peasants esp. suffer Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence Anti-Br. feelings grow Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows King Farouk in Milit. coup (1952) Nasser runs Egypt w/an iron fist (1952-70) & tries to use both US & SU for foreign aid while staying indep.: Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense 1936- Farouk becomes king  Anglo-Eg tr. requiring Br. Troops to leave Eg. exc. for control of Suez Canal Britain uses Egypt as base for N. Afr. campaigns  Withdraws army to Canal zone in 1947 Nationalizes Suez Canal (1956)  War w/Isr, Br. & Fr  Nasser a hero to Arabs Creates United Arab Rep. W/Syria  Falls apart over who leads Poses as champion of arabs vs Isr  Crushed by Isr. In Six Day War (1967) Anwar Sadat succeeds Nasser & at first follows his hard line policies vs. Israel Attacks Isr in Yom Kippur War Badly defeated (1973) 1st Arab leader to make peace w/Isr (1978)  Isr returns Sinai World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  47. FC.146D COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL EGYPT Tries to develop Egypt’s econ. but peasants esp. suffer Br. At war vs. Turkey (which technically owned Eg.)  Br. Replaces Turkish Khedive w/protectorate ruled by a sultan & maintains milit. presence Anti-Br. feelings grow Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows King Farouk in Milit. coup (1952) Nasser runs Egypt w/an iron fist (1952-70) & tries to use both US & SU for foreign aid while staying indep.: Demos for indep. In 1919  Br. makes Egypt indep. Kgd. In 1922, but still controls the Canal and runs Eg’s econ. & defense 1936- Farouk becomes king  Anglo-Eg tr. requiring Br. Troops to leave Eg. exc. for control of Suez Canal Britain uses Egypt as base for N. Afr. campaigns  Withdraws army to Canal zone in 1947 Nationalizes Suez Canal (1956)  War w/Isr, Br. & Fr  Nasser a hero to Arabs Creates United Arab Rep. W/Syria  Falls apart over who leads Poses as champion of arabs vs Isr  Crushed by Isr. In Six Day War (1967) Anwar Sadat succeeds Nasser & at first follows his hard line policies vs. Israel Attacks Isr in Yom Kippur War Badly defeated (1973) 1st Arab leader to make peace w/Isr (1978)  Isr returns Sinai World War I FC.127 World War I FC.127 Britain takes Egypt in 1882 to protect Suez Canal (FC.122) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) 1935- Mussolini seizes Ethiopia (FC.135) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  48. Egyptian troops cross Suez Canal

  49. Egyptian soldiers celebrate as they launch their surprise attack on Israel during Yom Kippur in October, 1973.