Post Colonial India Kierston Smith 3/6/12
Independence • August 15th 1947 • Britain no longer rules • Separated into India and Pakistan
New Leaders • Jawaharlal Nehru lead India in the time between its freedom from Britain to the time of his death in 1964 as Prime Minister. • When the Republic was established India’s first president was appointed • Dr. Rajendra Prasad served as President for two 5 year terms from 1952-1962
Problems In The Republic of India • Asassination of MuhatmaGhandi by Hindu extremist • War over Kashmir (India vs. Pakistan) • Population of about 1 billion people
Kashmir • The once princely state located between Pakistan and India • It was separated between the two after Pakistan invaded the state and India was called in to protect it. • Most of it was granted to India, while about one third of the state in the northern region was taken by Pakistan. • The two countries have fought over the land many times over the years 1947-48, 1965, 1999, and were very close again in 2002.
Unifying the Country • The separation of Pakistan and India left almost 8 million refugees without homes. • Along with the task of finding these people homes and jobs there were many small states with separate leaders, these rulers needed to become a part of India as a United Nation.
Unifying the Country Continued • In order to ensure that unification happened the Constitution gave every Indian 21 or older the right to vote, granted equality to everyone in the eyes of the law, and did away with the idea of “untouchables”. • But, besides unifying they also decided that their main focuses needed to be on the creation of big industries and the building of dams. This plan was decided on in 1956 and was supposed to be a five year plan.
Industrialization • Agriculture was and still is relied on heavily by India to bring in money and food. • Besides that, India needed growth for their smaller industries such as, spinning, weaving, and woodwork. • The hopes for this expansion were threatened by a very cheap, very competitive China. • In order to keep up industries needed to cut costs where they could and create new products.
Industrialization continued • India also ventured into large scale coal mining in the 1960’s. • Having the third largest coal reserves in the world as a resource, India created many jobs with the development of its coal-producing factories. • They also produce oil and gas.
1960’s • The 1960’s was also the time of the Cold War and as opposed to choosing a side, United States or USSR, India decided to choose neither. • They were one of many countries that chose to be un-aligned. • Being un-aligned didn’t stop them from intervening, India tried to act as a mediator between the countries.
Nuclear State • In 1974 India tested their first nuclear weapon. • This caused tension with other countries because India never signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty that had been signed by many other countries in 1968. • They conducted another 5 tests in 1998.
1970’s • 1975 brought about the “State of Emergency in India.” • This was a result to unrest of some Indians who believed that the third Prime Minister, IndiraGandhi, and her Congress party committed fraud during elections. • During this time Gandhi attained full control not allowing the people of India their civil rights and freedoms • In which time she required that many people were sterilized as birth control.
1980’s to present day • Indira Gandhi asassinated in 1984 • Indian troops are sent to Sri Lanka to act as peacekeepers in their civil war (1987-1990) • The city of Bangalore is known as the “Silicone Valley” due to increased Information technology outsourced from other countries. (early 200o’s) • India has also made much progress when it comes to renewable and nuclear energy. • India has developed hydroelectric power stations as well as having created 19 nuclear power plants by 2010.
Continued… • Even with its drastic growth India continues to be an impoverished country. • In 2005 it was estimated that 42% of its population was below the poverty line established internationally. • In 2006 a nuclear agreement is reached between the U.S. and India.
Works Cited • http://tadhg1991.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/india-deveolopment-since-independence-and-future-sustainability.pdf • http://www.currentaffairsindia.info/2011/11/india-after-independence.html • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-12641776 • http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/History/Independent/indep.html • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11693674 • http://www.state.gov/t/isn/npt/index.htm