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Wiring Layer Assignments with Consistent Stage Delays

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  1. Wiring Layer Assignments with Consistent Stage Delays Andrew B. Kahng (UCLA) Dirk Stroobandt (Ghent University) Supported by Cadence Design Systems, Inc. and the MARCO Gigascale Silicon Research Center SLIP 2000

  2. Outline • Introduction: wiring layer assignment • Problem and models • Optimization objective function • Our layer assignment method • Discussion and results • Conclusion SLIP 2000

  3. Introduction • DSM design routing tools have to account for • delay constraints • yield • power • … • Conventional technique: • router assigns wires to layers • wire sizing, repeater insertion/sizing applied • More interesting approach: • wire sizing etc. used by router to assign wires SLIP 2000

  4. Our Layer Assignment Concept • Search for optimal layer for a wire with • optimal wire size, number and size of repeaters for each wire • meeting consistent stage delay constraints • taking total repeater area constraint into account • accounting for impact of vias • A priori estimation techniques make it useful for application both before / after placement • Potential applications • improving CAD layout tools • studying effects of technological parameters • optimizing fabrication process SLIP 2000

  5. Problem and Models Find the optimal assignment of wires to wiring layers subject to delay constraints and total repeater area constraints • Optimization objective: # of layers needed • Degrees of freedom (for each wire) • choice of layer parameters • wire width • number of repeaters • size of the repeaters SLIP 2000

  6. } V tier H } V tier H Layer Assignment Assumptions • layer pairs form tiers (H and V) • tiers grouped in tier types (equal parameters) • (even) number of layers/type to be determined • wires are routed on 1 tier • inputs to the method: • number of tier types and their layer parameters • order (bottom-to-top) user-defined • output: • optimal number of layers / tier type • layer to which wires are assigned SLIP 2000

  7. Delay Constraint Model • Sakurai’s [IEEE TED, 1993] delay equation • depends on wire length/width through wire R, C • Delay can be reduced by • increasing wire width (for fixed length and layer) • consider uniform wire sizing (no tapering) • continuous wire sizing (no discrete set of widths) • optimal gate sizing • repeater insertion and sizing • repeaters at equal distances • number of repeaters even • Trade-off between delay and area SLIP 2000

  8. } } V V tier tier H H } } V V tier tier H H Via Impact Model • Sai-Halasz [1995]: every layer blocks 15% • Newer models: Chong [1999], Chen [1999] • terminal vias and turn vias • each wire uses 2 via stacks • number of terminal vias defined by layer assignment model • Via impact factor Chong: Chen: SLIP 2000

  9. Wire Length Distribution • All wires classified according to their length • Wire length distribution needed • measuring distances between placed gates • applying a priori wirelength estimation SLIP 2000

  10. l(2) Wire 2 W(2) Wire 1 Si Wire 0 Cost Function = Number of Layers • Non-integer by considering area needed/tier A = available area/layer • Area parts: wiring area + area “lost” to vias Tier type i SLIP 2000

  11. W Wmin Cost Function (cont.) • Via area assumptions • square area with side = minimal wire width/layer • line of vias for wider wires • via sizes scale with minimal wire widths for lower layers Tier type 2 Tier type 1 Tier type 0 SLIP 2000

  12. Cost Function (cont.) • Number of vias • each repeater adds 2 vias on layer of tier below • each repeater adds 1 via on layer of own tier • no repeaters: as if 1 repeater Gate Repeater Wire on type 2 Tier type 1 Tier type 2 SLIP 2000

  13. Via Impact Limits Number of Layers • Via impact factor must be < 1 • For maximum number of layers (e.g., 10) • 8 layers for wires: f<0.2 • number of wires < 300,000 (250nm, 10M trans., logic area 54mm , 4mm wire pitch on tier, all wires minimum width, no repeaters) 2 SLIP 2000

  14. Calculate cost DC for moving wire to other tier while optimizing W, Nr. Tmin<Ttarget? N Ttarget=Tmin. Sort costs in increasing order. Repeat for all wires. Y Calculate minimal repeater area Amin. Solution found! DCmin < 0? N Alimit=Amin Solution found! Amin<Alimit? N Y Y Move K wires with smallest DC<0. Repeat. Create initial solution on “fattest” tier. Layer Assignment method • 2 phases: optimize, then round to integers • Phase 1: Calculate minimal delay Tmin. SLIP 2000

  15. A Typical Example Tier type 2 Tier type 1 Tier type 0 Wire width (mm) Delay (ps) Number of repeaters 0 2 0 2 4 0 2 4 Wirelength (mm) SLIP 2000

  16. Target Delay Influence Tier type 2 Tier type 1 Tier type 0 Delay (ps) Wire width (mm) Wirelength (mm) Wirelength (mm) SLIP 2000

  17. Tier 2 Tier 1 Tier 0 Number of layers per tier type 10 10 9 8.0251 9 8 7.1053 8 7 6.3134 7 6 6 Total 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 Uniform Versus Non-uniform Stacks • Uniform still 3 numbers: via impact = Li fi SLIP 2000

  18. Tier 2 Tier 1 Tier 0 Number of layers per tier type 20 20 19.3665 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 7.1285 7.0002 8 8 5.4426 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 0 Optimal Layer Stack Monotonic? • Results depend on delay constraint SLIP 2000

  19. Conclusions • Layer assignment is becoming more critical • Our proposal: use stage delay constraints • Current work: 2-D length-delay distribution • Wire/repeater sizing + via impact + area limit • Via impact severely limits number of wires • Interesting conclusions: • maximum wire width on tier type not dependent on delay constraint • monotonic non-uniform layer stack (fat-wires-on-top) better than uniform • non-monotonic worse for tight delay constraints but “non-fat” tier on top can be beneficial • Useful to search for optimal layer stack parameters • Find threshold values to ensure optimality of layer stack and make layer assignment more “trivial” SLIP 2000