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The Solar System

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  1. The Solar System Earth is not even the beginning!

  2. Our Solar System

  3. How the Solar System Formed • Large explosion sent gas and dust flying • Gravity forced particles together • Tighter • And Tighter • And even tighter • Until they began to heat because of friction • This would eventually become stars and planets

  4. How it began

  5. How The Solar System Formed

  6. Solar System • Composed of a number of things • Sun • Planets • Moons • Asteroids • Dwarf Planets • Comets • And of course Space

  7. History of Solar System • Geocentric model put earth at the center (Ptolemy) • Sun and all planets orbited Earth • Impossible

  8. Heliocentric Model • Copernicus fixed Ptolemy’s problem • Put Sun at center of Solar System • Lots of criticism • Correct

  9. The Sun • Gas star • Made of hydrogen and helium • 99% mass of solar system • Powers EVERYTHING in solar system

  10. Sun Cont. • Massive gravitational pull • 10,000 Degrees Fahrenheit (5,500 C) • 93,000,000 miles from Earth • Fusion of hydrogen to helium • Center of the Solar System

  11. Warm Up Questions… • 1. What is the main difference between the geocentric and heliocentric models of planetary orbit? • 2. Who originally proposed the heliocentric model? • 3. How hot is the sun? • 4. How far is the sun from Earth? • 5. What was the material that came from the explosion that formed our solar system? • 6. What force allowed these particles to rotate and eventually fuse together?

  12. Think About It??? • Explain how small particles such as dust and gas could form something as large as a planet?

  13. Planets • 8 Planets in our solar system. (Sorry Pluto) • 4 Inner planets (Rock) • 4 Outer Planets (Gas and Ice) • Made of rock or gas • All orbit around the Sun • Have unique features

  14. Planet Formation • Grains of dust and other material condensed and began to accumulate into small masses. • Masses grew and grew • Masses became spheres • We call them planets

  15. Inner Planets • Also known as terrestrial planets • Smaller than others • More dense • Made of Rock • Revolve fast around the sun • Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars

  16. Mercury • Closest planet to the sun • Orbits the sun every 88 days • Rotates once every 59 days (1407.6 hours) • No Moons • Approx. 1/3 the size of Earth

  17. Mercury Cont. • Thin Atmosphere • Surface is covered with craters • Temp. Day=473 C Night= -173 C • Mariner 10 – 1974 • Messenger - 2011

  18. Mercury Mythology • Named after Roman god Mercurius • Messenger of the gods • Greek god Hermes

  19. Why we will never meet an alien…

  20. Venus • Second planet from the sun • No moons • Orbit period 225 days • Rotation 243 days • Same size as earth • Hottest planet in solar system • Very thick atmosphere

  21. Venus’ Atmosphere • Pressure is 92x greater than Earth • Clouds composed of sulfuric acid • Greenhouse gases trapped in atmosphere • 464 C

  22. Venus Surface • Composed of Basalt and Granite • 1978- Pioneer • 1989- Magellan • Inner core of metal

  23. Venus • Roman goddess of love • Greek would be Aphrodite • Brightest object in the night sky next to moon

  24. Mercury and Venus

  25. Warm Up Questions??? • 1. Please list the two reasons why Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system? • 2. Why are Venus and Earth considered twin planets? • 3. How long does it take Mercury to orbit the Sun? • 4. What does the surface of Mercury look like? • 5. Why does Mercury’s surface look like this? • 6. What is unique about the rotation of Venus?

  26. Earth • 3rd planet from the sun • Orbit period 365.24 days • One rotation in 23 hours and 56 minutes • Thick atmosphere (greenhouse effect) • Tectonically active • One moon

  27. Earth Mythology • Romans called her “terra Mater” • Mother Earth • Goddess Gaia

  28. Earth Formation • Originally hot • Crust cooled • Inside is hot (mantle and core) • Dense materials were pulled in close to the center by gravity. (iron)

  29. Water on Earth • Water allowed life to form on earth • Water came from two places • 1. Water vapor contained in volcanoes during eruption • 2. Contained in meteor, comet, and asteroid collisions with earth.

  30. Beginnings of Earth

  31. Warm Up Questions??? • 1. What are the four layers of the Earth called? • 2. What is the largest layer? • 3. Which layer(s) are solid? • 4. What layer do we live on? • 5. Describe the outer core? • 6. Why couldn’t we dig a hole to China?

  32. Mars • 4th planet from the sun • Orbit period 468 days • Rotation = 24hours 37 minutes • Has a tilted axis like Earth (Seasons) • Iron oxide in soil makes it red • Atmosphere • Constant wind and dust storms

  33. Mars Cont. • Temp Range -87C to -5C • Dried river and lake beds • Surface has ancient non functioning volcanoes • No tectonic plate movement • Polar ice caps