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The Solar System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Solar System. Includes the sun and the objects its gravity holds around it Kuiper Belt New Horizons . 23.1. The Solar System. Geocentric theory Ancient model of universe Earth at center Stars Sun and moon. 23.2. The Solar System. Geocentric theory Planets Circular orbits

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slide1

The Solar System

  • Includes the sun and the objects its gravity holds around it
  • Kuiper Belt
  • New Horizons

23.1

slide2

The Solar System

  • Geocentric theory
    • Ancient model of universe
    • Earth at center
    • Stars
    • Sun and moon

23.2

slide3

The Solar System

  • Geocentric theory
    • Planets
    • Circular orbits
    • Problems:
      • Differences in planet brightness
      • Retrograde motion

23.2

slide4

The Solar System

  • Geocentric theory
    • Ptolemy
      • Deferents
      • Epicycles
    • Upheld by Roman Catholic Church

23.2

slide5

The Solar System

  • Heliocentric theory
    • Nicolaus Copernicus
      • The Revolutions
      • Sun at center of universe
      • Moon orbits Earth

23.2

slide6

The Solar System

  • Heliocentric theory
    • Challenged by many
    • Copernican Revolution

23.2

slide7

The Solar System

  • Tycho
    • Most accurate astronomer of his time
  • Galileo
    • New telescope
    • Critic of geocentric theory

23.3

slide8

The Solar System

  • Kepler
    • Brilliant mathematician
    • Planets’ orbits are elliptical
      • Foci

23.3

slide9

The Solar System

  • Three laws of planetary motion
    • Planets move in ellipses with the sun at one focus

23.3

slide10

The Solar System

  • Three laws of planetary motion
    • A planet moves faster when closer to the sun and slower when farther away

23.3

slide11

The Solar System

  • Three laws of planetary motion
    • Time planets take to orbit the sun and their average distances from the sun always have the same mathematical relationship

23.3

slide12

The Solar System

  • Perihelion
  • Aphelion

23.3

slide13

The Solar System

  • Newton
    • Mathematically described gravitational force

23.3

slide14

The Planets

  • What is a planet?
    • IAU definition
      • 8 planets
      • Dwarf planets
      • Small solar system bodies

23.4

slide15

The Planets

  • What is a planet?
    • Classification by properties
      • Terrestrial
      • Jovian
        • Gas giants

23.4

slide16

The Planets

  • What is a planet?
    • Classification by position
      • Inferior
        • Transits
      • Superior
        • Retrograde motion

23.4

slide17

The Planets

  • Mercury
    • Closest to sun
    • Smallest
    • Short year, long day
    • No known moons

23.5

slide18

The Planets

  • Venus
    • Brightest planet in our sky
    • Appears to rotate backwards
    • Atmosphere

23.5

slide19

The Planets

  • Earth
    • Third planet from sun

23.5

slide20

The Planets

  • Mars
    • Reddish color
    • No geomagnetic field
    • Phobos and Deimos
    • Olympus Mons
    • Erosional features

23.5

slide21

The Planets

  • Jupiter
    • Fifth and largest planet
    • Rocky core with layer of metallic hydrogen
    • Great Red Spot

23.6

slide22

The Planets

  • Jupiter
    • Many moons
      • Galilean moons discovered in 1610

23.6

slide23

The Planets

  • Saturn
    • Equatorial bulge
    • Many moons
    • Ring system
    • Titan

23.6

slide24

The Planets

  • Uranus
    • Discovered by Herschel in 1781
    • Axial tilt
    • Unusual structure
    • Faint rings

23.6

slide25

The Planets

  • Neptune
    • Most distant planet
    • More massive than Uranus, but has a smaller diameter
    • Rings

23.6

slide26

Nonplanetary

  • Dwarf planets
    • Pluto
      • Discovered by Tombaugh at Lowell Observatory
      • “Double planet”

23.7

slide27

Nonplanetary

  • Dwarf planets
    • Ceres
    • Haumea, Makemake, and Eris
      • Members of the Kuiper Belt

23.7

slide28

Nonplanetary

  • Small Solar System Bodies
    • Planetary moons
    • Asteroids
    • Comets
    • Meteors

23.8

slide29

Nonplanetary

  • Asteroids
    • Much smaller than planets
    • Asteroid belt
    • Trojans & Greeks
    • Near-earth asteroids

23.8

slide30

Nonplanetary

  • Comets
    • Composition
    • Head
      • Nucleus
      • Coma
    • Tail

23.8

slide31

Nonplanetary

  • Comets
    • Edmund Halley
      • Halley’s Comet
    • Periodic comets
    • Oort cloud

23.8

slide32

Nonplanetary

  • Meteoroids
    • Not visible in space even with telescope
  • Meteors
    • Meteoroid that enters atmosphere
    • “Shooting star”

23.8

slide33

Nonplanetary

  • Meteor showers
  • Meteorites
    • Reach earth’s surface
    • Form craters

23.8