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The Cell. Introduction. The cell is defined as the smallest unit that can carry on all the processes of life There are unicellular organisms which are one celled like a paramecium Multicellular organisms contain more than one cell. Cell Theory.

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  • The cell is defined as the smallest unit that can carry on all the processes of life
  • There are unicellular organisms which are one celled like a paramecium
  • Multicellular organisms contain more than one cell
cell theory
Cell Theory
  • All living things are composed of one or more cells
  • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
  • New cells only come from existing cells
internal structure and organization
Internal Structure and Organization
  • Cells differ in their internal organization
  • The nucleus directs the activity of the cell and contains the DNA
  • In addition to the nucleus, there are smaller structures called organelles
  • An organelle is a cell component (part) that performs a specific function in the cell (a little organ)
  • Cells that contain both a nucleus and organelles are called eukaryotes (yoo-KAR-ee-OTES)
    • Plants, animals, fungi, & protists
  • Cells that lack a nuclei and organelles are called prokaryotes (pro-KAR-ee-OTES)
    • Bacteria are prokaryotes
parts of the cell
Parts of the Cell
  • Although there is not a typical eukaryotic cell, most cells have 3 basic parts
    • Cell Membrane/Wall
    • Cytoplasm
    • Nucleus
parts of the cell cont
Parts of the Cell (cont)
  • Cell Membrane
    • Separates cell from external environment, gives shape and flexibility
    • Barrier that keeps some molecules out but allows some in (called a semipermeable membrane or selectively permeable membrane)
  • Ribosomes
    • Most numerous
    • Make protein
    • Spherical structure
parts of a cell cont
Parts of a Cell (cont)

1. Cell membrane


The red dots on the pink are the ribosomes

parts of the cell cont1
Parts of the Cell (cont)
  • Cytoplasm
      • Jellylike material found inside the cell (the area outside of the nucleus) & contains water, salts and organelles
  • Cytoskeleton
    • Made of microfilaments and microtubules
    • Helps the cell maintain shape and movement (amoebas to crawl)



parts of the cell cont2
Parts of the Cell (cont)
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R. for short)
    • Membrane system of folded sacs and tunnels
    • Smooth E.R. has few or no ribosomes on it
      • Function as intercellular highways
      • Also function as a storage area for proteins
    • Rough E.R. contains lots of ribosomes and produces lots of protein
  • Golgi Apparatus
    • Processing, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the E.R. for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell
    • Consists of a stack of membranes or sacs filled with fluids

1. Rough ER



2. Smooth ER

3. Golgi Apparatus


review thumbs up 7 up
ReviewThumbs Up-7 Up
  • T F A cell is defined as the smallest unit that can carry out at least 1 process of life.
  • T F The movie Jurassic Park illustrates 1 segment of the Cell Theory.
  • T F Organelles have specific functions.
  • T F The 3 common parts of a eukaryotic cell are the cell wall, nucleus & chloroplast.
  • T F The cell membrane separates the cell from the external environment.
  • T F Ribosomes are found on the smooth ER.
  • T F Cytoplasm is found inside the nucleus.
parts of the cell cont3
Parts of the Cell (cont)
  • Mitochondria
    • Respiration centers of the cell
    • Convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
    • ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is formed here which provides the chemical reactions in the cell
  • Lysosmes
    • Contain digestive enzymes
    • Small spherical shaped
    • Found primarily in animal and fungal cells
    • They digest food particles, disease-causing bacteria captured by white blood cells and worn out cells and cell parts
parts of a cell cont1
Parts of a Cell (cont)
  • Vacuoles
    • Saclike structure
    • Store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbs
    • In many plant cells there is a large central vacuole filled with fluid
    • Also found in some unicellular organisms & some animals


1. Vacuole


1. Mitochondria-powerhouse of the cell



2. Lysosmes-G-men of the cell

parts of the cell cont4
Parts of the Cell (cont)
  • Cilia and Flagella
    • Extend from the surface of the cell
    • Function in movement
  • Cell Nucleus
    • Nucleic acids are synthesized here & directs cell activity
    • The nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus and has pores that allow material to move in and out of the nucleus
    • The nucleus contains a small, dense region known as the nucleolus which begins the assembly of ribosomes



Allows cell to move


1. Chromatin-DNA that condenses to form chromosomes




2. Nucleolus-begins the assembly of ribosomes

3.Nuclear envelope-allows materials to move in and out of the nucleus


4. ER-intercellular highway


  • T F The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell.
  • T F Lysosmes can be compared to garbage men.
  • T F Cilia and flagella are internal structures that help with cell movement.
  • T F The nucleus directs cell activity.
  • T F The nuclear envelope ensures that nothing gets in or out of the nucleus.
  • T F Ribosomes are assembled in the nucleolus.
cell parts cont
Cell Parts (cont)
  • Chromatin
    • Spread throughout the nucleus
    • DNA bound to protein
    • During cell division it condenses to form chromosomes
  • Chromosomes
    • Threadlike structures that contain genetic information
  • Centrioles
    • Found only in animal cells
    • Located near the nucleus
    • Organizes cell division

1. Centrioles



plant cells
Plant Cells
  • Differences between plant and animal cells
    • A cell wall surrounds the cell membrane which helps support & protect the cell
    • Plastids store food or pigments
  • Cell Wall
    • Rigid and made of cellulose
    • The cellulose is difficult for man and other animals to digest
plant cells cont
Plant cells (cont)
  • Plastids
    • Depend on light as a source of energy
    • Plastids convert solar energy to chemical energy
    • Chloroplasts contain green pigment called chlorophyll which absorbs sunlight
    • Chromoplasts synthesize & store pigments which trap light and give plants color
    • Leucoplasts store food such as starches, proteins, and Lipids


1. Chloroplasts-contain chlorophyll

  • T F Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes.
  • T F Chromosomes are only found in animal cells.
  • Centrioles are found only in plant cells and organize cell division.
  • T F The cell wall is made of cellulose.
  • Cellulose is high in fiber, that is why fruits and veggies make a good diet food.
  • T F Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll.
  • T F Another name for lipids is fats.