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THE CELL
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THE CELL

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  1. THE CELL

  2. THE CELL MOLECULES COMPOUNDS ATOMS CELLS ORGANELLES

  3. THE CELL • WHAT IS A CELL? • ROBERT HOOKE IN MID-1960’S OBSERVED CORK WITH A COMPOUND MICROSCOPE • COINED THE TERM “CELL” TO DESCRIBE WHAT HE OBSERVED

  4. THE CELL • WHAT IS A CELL? • ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK DEVELOPED NEW MICROSCOPES AND OBSERVED POND WATER • OBSERVED THINGS NEVER SEEN BEFORE!! • DIDN’T DRAW ANY CONCLUSIONS, THOUGH…JUST SHARED OBSERVATIONS

  5. THE CELL • WASN’T UNTIL 1800’S THAT SCIENTISTS STARTED DRAWING CONLCUSIONS/DEVEOPING THEORIES

  6. THE CELL • SCWANN AND SCHLEIDEN FIRST TO PROPOSE THE BEGINNINGSOF THE: • CELLTHEORY

  7. THE CELL

  8. THE CELL • THE CELL THEORY STATES THAT • ALL LIVING THINGS ARE MADE UP OF CELLS • CELLS ARE THE BASIC UNIT OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN LIVING THINGS • ALL CELLS ARISE FROM PRE-EXISTING CELLS

  9. THE CELL • TWO BASIC TYPES OF CELLS • PROKARYOTES VS EUKARYOTES • WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE??

  10. THE CELL • PROKARYOTE VS EUKARYOTE

  11. THE CELL • CELL SIZE • NEED TO COME UP WITH UNITS…(μm)

  12. THE CELL • μm = MICROMETER • WHAT DOES A MICROMETER EQUAL?? • 1,000 μm = 1 mm

  13. THE CELL • HOW COME WE NEED MICROMETERS? • CELLS CAN’T BE VERY LARGE…WHY NOT?? • IT IS DUE TOTHESURFACE AREATO VOLUMERATIO

  14. THE CELL

  15. THE CELL • CELLS MUST BE ABLE TO OBTAIN NECESSARY NUTRIENTS AND REMOVE WASTES ACROSS THEIR CELL MEMBRANE AT A RATE THAT SUSTAINS THEIR NEEDS

  16. THE CELL • NOW THAT WE HAVE ESTABLISHED CELL SIZE, WHAT MAKES UP THE CELL??

  17. THE CELL • STRUCTURES THAT MAKE UP THE CELL ARE CALLED?? • ORGANELLES • ORGANELLES • CELL WALL • CELL MEMBRANE • NUCLEUS • ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM • RIBOSOMES • LYSOSOMES • MITOCHONDRIA • CHLOROPLASTS • ETC…

  18. THE CELL • CELL WALL • MOST BACTERIA, VARIOUS OTHER MICROORGANISMS, AND ALL PLANT CELLS • PROVIDES STRUCTURE AND PROTECTION • WHAT IS IT MADE OF? • CELLULOSE

  19. THE CELL • CELL MEMBRANE (A.K.A. PLASMA MEMBRANE)

  20. THE CELL • CELL MEMBRANE (A.K.A. PLASMA MEMBRANE) • COMPOSED OF CARBS, PROTEINS, AND LIPIDS • PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER • FUNCTION? • BARRIER BETWEENINTERNAL AND EXTERNALENVIRONMENTS

  21. THE CELL • CELL MEMBRANE (A.K.A. PLASMA MEMBRANE) • SELECTIVELYPERMEABLE • SOME SUBSTANCESCAN PASSTHROUGH, WHILE OTHERSUBSTANCESCAN NOT

  22. THE CELL • NUCLEUS • MEMBRANE-BOUND STRUCTURE THAT SERVESAS CONTROLCENTER FORMETABOLISM AND CELLULAR REPRODUCTION • *LARGEST ORGANELLE* • CONTAINS DNA (BLUEPRINTS)

  23. THE CELL • NUCLEUS • NUCLEAR ENVELOPE • MEMBRANE THAT SURROUNDS NUCLEUS • NUCLEOLUS • PLURAL = NUCLEOLI • COMPOSED OF DNA/RNA/PROTEIN • SITE OF RIBOSOMAL PRODUCTION

  24. THE CELL • CYTOPLASM • WATERY MATERIAL IN THECELL BETWEEN THE CELL MEMBRANE ANDNUCLEUS • CONTAINS DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES THAT ARE A PART OF METABOLIC REACTIONS • LOCATION OF A VARIETY OF CELLULAR ORGANELLES

  25. THE CELL • ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (E.R.) • ROUGH E.R. VS SMOOTH E.R. • SYSTEM OF FLUID-FILLED CANALS • INVOLVED IN INTRA-CELLULAR TRANSPORT, AND SURFACE AREA FOR METABOLIC REACTIONS WITHIN THE CELL

  26. THE CELL • RIBOSOMES • COMPOSED OFRNA AND PROTEIN • SOLE FUNCTIONIS PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  27. THE CELL

  28. THE CELL • GOLGI BODY (A.K.A. GOLGI APPARATUS) • MODIFY, PACKAGE, AND TRANSPORTPROTEINS MADEBY THE CELLTO THEIR FINAL DESTINATION

  29. THE CELL

  30. THE CELL • LYSOSOMES • BREAKDOWN BODY • CONTAIN HYDROLYTICENZYMES • ENZYMES THAT CATALYZE HYDROLYSIS • LYSOSOMES CAN DIGEST THE ORGANISMIF NOT CONTAINED!! (EX. TAY-SACHS) • LYSOSOMAL DISEASE

  31. THE CELL • MITOCHONDRIA • INVOLVED IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION • ATP PRODUCTION (ATP IS A HIGH ENERGY MOLECULE) • EVERY EUKARYOTIC CELL HAS THIS ORGANELLE!! • WE WILL SPEND A WHOLE CHAPTER ON CELLULAR RESPIRATION

  32. THE CELL • CYTOSKELETON • SUPPORTS CELL, PROVIDES MOVEMENT • COMPOSED OFMICROTUBULES ANDMICROFILAMENTS

  33. THE CELL • VACUOLES • STORAGE SACKS • DIFFERENT TYPES • FOOD VACUOLE • CENTRAL VACUOLE • CONTRACTILE VACUOLE

  34. THE CELL • CENTRIOLES • INVOLVED IN CELL DIVISION • NOT FULLY UNDERSTOOD

  35. THE CELL • CILIA AND FLAGELLA • HAIRLIKE ORGANELLES INVOLVED IN CELLULAR MOVEMENT

  36. THE CELL • CHLOROPLASTS

  37. THE CELL • CHLOROPLASTS • INVOLVED IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS • CONTAIN CHLOROPHYLL(SUBSTANCE THAT MAKES THEM GREEN) • ONE OF THE GROUP OF ORGANELLES CALLEDPLASTIDS • LEUCOPLASTS • CHROMOPLASTS • CHLOROPLASTS • PLASTIDS • GROUP OF ORGANELLESONLY FOUND INPHOTOSYNTHETIC EUKARYOTES

  38. THE CELL • REMEMBER, WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS? • WHAT ORGANELLES AREN’T IN PROKARYOTES THAT ARE IN EUKARYOTES? • HOW DID THOSE ORGANELLES GET THERE?

  39. THE CELL • ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY • IT IS BELIEVEDTHAT PROKARYOTESFUSED TOGETHERAND FORMEDTHE FIRSTEUKARYOTICCELLS

  40. THE CELL • MAINTAINING A CONSTANT CELL ENVIRONMENT • THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CELL MUST BE KEPT CONSTANT AT ALL TIMES • HOMEOSTASIS • WHAT HAPPENS IF HOMEOSTASIS IS INTERUPTED? • THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT IS CONTROLLED BY HOMEOSTASIS, BUT WHAT ABOUT THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT? • IT IS CONSTANTLY CHANGING!!!

  41. THE CELL • THE SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE CELL MEMBRANE PROTECTS THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT FROM THE CRAZY CHANGES OF THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

  42. THE CELL • HOW DO SUBSTANCES THAT CAN GET THROUGH THE MEMBRANE DO IT? • DIFFUSION • THE MOVEMENT OF PARTICLESFROM HIGH CONCENTRATIONTO LOWCONCENTRATION

  43. THE CELL • KEY CONCEPTS WITH DIFFUSION: • EQUILIBRIUM • CONCENTRATION GRADIENT • DIFFUSION IS VITAL TOWARDS THE MOVEMENT OF PARTICLES/MOLECULES IN AND OUT OF CELLS

  44. THE CELL • THE CELL MEMBRANE CREATES A BARRIER BETWEEN THE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT, LEADING TO THE FORMATION OF A CONCETRATION GRADIENT WHICH ALLOWS DIFFUSION TO OCCUR

  45. THE CELL • WHAT IS THE CELL MEMBRANE MADE UP OF?

  46. THE CELL • SPECIALIZED PROTEINS IN THE CELL MEMBRANE MAKE DIFFUSION HAPPEN FASTER THAN IT WOULD NATURALLY • FACILITATED DIFFUSION • DIFFUSION THAT OCCURS WITH ASSISTANCE (IN THIS CASE, PROTEINS IN THE MEMBRANE)

  47. THE CELL • WHO REMEMBERS WHAT THE MOST AWESOME, COOL, RADICAL, GNARLIEST INORGANIC COMPOUND IS?? • H2O • BECAUSE WATER IS SO SUPER COOL, IT HAS ITS OWN TYPE OF DIFFUSION

  48. THE CELL • OSMOSIS • THE DIFFUSION OF WATER ACROSS A SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE • WHAT CAN YOU FILL IN FOR THE WORD DIFFUSION?? • WHY IS WATERSO DIFFERENT? • BECAUSE STUFFCAN BE DISSOLVED IN THEWATER

  49. THE CELL • THE ORIGINAL “U-TUBE”

  50. THE CELL • OSMOSIS IS SO POWERFUL, IT’S “DEFYING GRAVITY!!” • THIS IS KNOWN AS OSMOTIC PRESSURE