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Louis Stodieck Phone: 492-4010 E-mail: stodieck@colorado.edu Office: ECAE 113. Lecture Notes Website www.colorado.edu\ASEN\asen5426. Reading Assignments. “Molecular Cell Biology”, Lodish, Berk, Zipursky, Matsudaira, Baltimore and Darnell, 2000. Control via Cells and Tissues.

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slide1

Louis Stodieck

Phone: 492-4010

E-mail: stodieck@colorado.edu

Office: ECAE 113

slide2

Lecture Notes Website

www.colorado.edu\ASEN\asen5426

reading assignments
Reading Assignments

“Molecular Cell Biology”, Lodish, Berk, Zipursky, Matsudaira, Baltimore and Darnell, 2000.

control via cells and tissues
Control via Cells and Tissues
  • Controls emanate from cell form and function
    • 10-100 trillion cells in the human body
    • Each cell carries a full blueprint (genome) but runs different subroutines (gene expression)
    • Integrated responses of cell aggregates (tissues and organs) give rise to whole organism responses
constituents of cells
Constituents of Cells
  • Water (70-80%)
  • Ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, PO4-, Cl-, etc.)
  • Carbohydrates (sugars, starches)
  • Proteins (chains of amino acids)
    • Structural vs. enzymatic
    • Soluble vs. membrane bound
  • Lipids (membranes, energy)
  • Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
slide8

Trachea –

Epithelial cells

slide9

Pancreas –

Acinar cells

human genome
Human Genome
  • Human DNA has 3.2 billion base pairs
  • Data is equivalent to ~800 Mbytes
    • Only ~1.5% (12 Mb) codes for actual “products”
  • Each cell (with few exceptions) contain 23 chromosome pairs
  • Stretched out, DNA would be 6 ft. long for a single cell
  • End to end, an individual’s DNA would reach to the sun and back 60 times!!!!
more gene trivia
More Gene Trivia
  • Human genome has been sequenced
    • Humans have ~25,000 genes
      • Yeast = 6,000 genes
      • Fruit fly = 13,000 genes
      • Nematode = 18,000 genes
      • Arabidopsis = 26,000 genes
    • We differ from each other by roughly 1 base pair per 1000 (99.9% the same)
slide26

From: Hammond et al., 2000,

Physiological Genomics, 3:163-173.

control of cell division
Control of Cell Division
  • Why is control necessary
    • Unchecked growth would be disastrous
      • 1 cell = 4.2(10)-9 g
      • Assume cells divide once each day
      • N = 2t (N = number of cells, t = time in days)
      • In 1 month = 4.5 g
      • In 2 months = 4,800,000 Kg = 5,000 tons
    • But cell division is necessary
      • Developmental growth
      • Maintenance of tissue and organ functions
      • Repair of damaged tissues
      • Immune cell proliferation
slide28

Postmitotic cells

Quiescent phase

Mitosis – cell division

~30 min. to complete

Prep for DNA replication

Highly variable ~9 hrs. in

cycling cells

Prep for mitosis

~4-5 hours

-DNA repair and

“proofreading”

DNA replication

~10 hours

control of cell division1
Control of Cell Division
  • Controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks)
  • Cdks are made through transcriptional induction
    • Growth factors
    • Hormones
    • Tissue disaggregation
    • Mitogens
g1 checkpoint
G1 Checkpoint
  • Cdks phosphorylate proteins (RB) that would otherwise inhibit cell cycling
  • Phosphorylation causes short-term positive feedback – Threshold response (not unlike action potential)
  • Other proteins can delay or stop process or redirect cell to apoptosis
apoptosis
Apoptosis
  • Cells commit suicide through programmed cell death
  • Cells require trophic factors to prevent
    • Mechanism always armed
    • Binding of trophic factors alters phosphorylation
    • E.g., nerve growth factor (NGF)
  • Final death agents are caspases (proteases)