CHAPTER 9 Social Stratification. Section 1: Systems of Stratification Section 2: The American Class System Section 3: Poverty. Section 1: Systems of Stratification. Objectives:. Identify the characteristics of caste systems and class systems.
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CHAPTER 9Social Stratification Section 1: Systems of Stratification Section 2: The American Class System Section 3: Poverty
Section 1: Systems of Stratification Objectives: • Identify the characteristics of caste systems and class systems. • Contrast the major theories of social stratification.
Caste System: Closed and lifelong Immobility and inherited status Based on specific occupations Ascribed status Class System: Open and mobile Reward is determined by achieved status Property, prestige, and power are important Section 1: Systems of Stratification Characteristics of Caste and Class Systems
Section 1: Systems of Stratification Major Theories of Social Stratification • Functionalist Theorists – view stratification as a necessary feature of the social structure and argue that the more important a role and the more skill needed to perform it, the higher the reward • Conflict Theorists – view stratification as a result of conflict over scarce resources and argue that groups who gain power then use that power to maintain it
Section 2: The American Class System Objectives: • Identify the characteristics of the American class system. • Explain how different motivations and cultural values influence the American class system.
Section 2: The American Class System The American Class System • Upper Class – attend prestigious universities; owners of large businesses, investors, heirs to family fortunes, top business executives; 1 percent of population • Upper Middle Class – attend college of university, business executives, professionals; 14 percent of population • Lower Middle Class – high school, some college; lower-level managers skilled craftworkers, supervisors; 30 percent of population
Section 2: The American Class System The American Class System (continued) • Working Class – high school education; factory workers, clerical workers, lower level salespeople, some craftworkers; 30 percent of population • Working Poor – some high school; laborers, service workers; 22 percent of population • Underclass – some high school; undesirable, low-paying jobs, unemployed, on welfare; 3 percent of population
Section 2: The American Class System Motivations and Cultural Values Influence the American Class System • Such values influence Americans to try to do better financially than their parents and to help their children do the same • Most Americans remain in the same social class as their parents
Section 3: Poverty Objectives: • Identify the groups of Americans that are affected by poverty. • Describe the steps that have been taken by the federal government to lessen the effects of poverty.
Section 3: Poverty Groups Affected By Poverty • Age – children are the largest group (37 percent); three times more African American and Hispanic children are poor than whites • Sex – women are the largest segment (57 percent); female-headed households account for about half of all poor families • Race and Ethnicity – African Americans and Hispanics are far more likely than white Americans to be poor
Section 3: Poverty Government Responses To Poverty • Government attempts to reduce inequality through various social-welfare programs using two approaches: • Transfer Payments – redistribution of money among various segments of society; major programs include Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) • Subsidies - transfer goods and services rather than cash such as the Food Stamp Program, housing, school lunches, and Medicaid