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Global Stratification Chapter 9 . Stratification Systems . The condition of being arranged into classes or social strata within a group. Stratification can happen in two ways:

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Global Stratification Chapter 9

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stratification systems
Stratification Systems
  • The condition of being arranged into classes or social strata within a group.
  • Stratification can happen in two ways:
    • People can be assigned to societal roles, using as a basis for the assignment an ascribed status over which they have no control.
      • The Caste System and the Estate System
        • i.e. gender, age, family name, or skin color
    • People’s positions in the social hierarchy can be based to some degree on their achieved statuses gained through their individual, direct efforts.
      • The Class System
the caste system
The Caste System
  • The caste system is a rigid form of stratification, based on ascribed characteristics such as skin color or family identity, that determines a person's prestige, occupation, residence and social relationships.
    • Many people believe that true caste systems are found only in India, although some have suggested that they exist in southwestern Ethiopia and other parts of Africa.
the caste system continued
The Caste System (Continued)
  • People are born into and spend their entire lives within a caste with little chance of leaving.
  • The caste is a closed group whose members are severely restricted in their choice of occupation and degree of social participation.
  • Social status is determined by the caste of one’s birth , and it is very unusual for a person to overcome his or her origins.
  • Contact between castes is minimal and governed by a set of rules.
india the hindu caste system
India- The Hindu Caste System
  • Religious beliefs often justify a caste system
    • i.e. The Hindu Caste System in India
  • The Hindu Caste System in India consisted of four varnas each of which corresponded to a body part of the mythical Purusa
              • Purusa’s mouth issued forth priest (Brahmans)
              • His arms gave rise to warriors (Kshatriyas)
              • His thighs produced artisans and merchants (Vaishyas)
              • His feet brought forth menial laborers ( Shudras)
              • Below the Shudras were the untouchables or Panchamas ( the “fifth division”)
                • Considered to fall outside the caste and performed the most menial tasks.
the hindu caste system
The Hindu Caste System
  • Each varna had clearly defined rights and duties associated with it.
the hindu caste system1
The Hindu Caste System
  • In the 1930s Mohandas Gandhi tried to change attitudes towards the untouchables and the untouchability was declared illegal in 1949.
  • Officially the Indian Caste system has been outlawed, but evidence of its existence is still present, particularly in rural areas.
  • The Indian government has an affirmative action system that it calls “reservations” which applies to certain government jobs and admission to all pubic and private educational institutions.
the estate system
The Estate System
  • The Estate System is a close system of stratification in which a persons social position is defined by law and membership is determined primarily by inheritance.
  • An estate is as segment of society that has legally established rights and duties.
  • Some mobility is possible but is difficult.
the estate system of medieval europe
The Estate System of Medieval Europe
  • The three major estates in Europe during the Middle Ages were the nobility, the clergy, and the bottom of the hierarchy, the peasants.
  • Nobility were the warriors and expected to provide military protection and social order to the other two estates.
  • The clergy not only ministered to the spiritual needs of all the people but also were often powerful landowners as well.
  • The peasants were legally tied to the land which they worked to provide the nobles with food and wealth. Peasants had low social status, little freedom or economic standing, and almost no power.
  • Just above the peasants was a small group of merchants and craftsmen and they operated outside the estate system.
the estate system of medieval europe1
The Estate System of Medieval Europe
  • Individuals were born into one of the estates and remain there throughout their lives.
  • Under unusual circumstances people could change their estates, as for example, when peasants through savings could buy a position in the church for a son or a daughter.
          • For most, however, social mobility was difficult and extremely limited because the wealth was permanently concentrated among the landowners.
the class system
The Class System
  • People in a Class share:
    • similar opportunities
    • similar economic positions
    • similar vocational
    • similar lifestyles
    • similar attitudes/behaviors
  • Greater mobility
theories of global stratification
Theories of Global Stratification
  • Modernization Theory
  • Dependency Theory
modernization theory
Modernization Theory
  • Differences due to:
    • Technology
    • Culture
      • Strong religious or historical traditions
  • Helping less-developed countries
  • Critics
dependency theory
Dependency Theory
  • Rich and poor nations linked
  • Rich exploit the poor
  • Marxist view
    • Capitalism has a global effect
  • Poor become dependent on the rich
  • Critics
global diversity
Global Diversity
  • World population has more than doubled since 1960.
  • 20% of the global population accounts for 86% of private consumption.
  • Lowest 20% in terms of wealth holds only 1.23%
    • 2 billion people are malnourished
    • ¼ lack adequate housing
    • 20% cannot access proper healthcare
    • 20% of children cannot access education.
world health trends
World Health Trends
  • Health: an state of complete mental, physical and social well-being.
    • Life expectancy has increased in developed countries.

80% of the world’s population has no access to healthcare.

children and infant s health in developing countries
Children and Infant’s Health in Developing Countries.
  • Developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America account for 98% of the world’s death of children below 5.
  • 95% of those deaths are preventable.
    • Diarrheal dehydration, malaria, tetanus, measles, infectious and respiratory diseases, diphtheria, tuberculosis, pertussis.
maternal health
Maternal Health
  • Maternal malnutrition
    • Low weight babies
    • Impaired immune systems
    • Learning disabilities

Mother’s excessively heavy workloads.



Hookworm infestation

newborn mortality prevention
Newborn Mortality Prevention
  • Family planning programs which discourage teen pregnancy
  • Better educated mothers know more about good diet and hygiene
    • More likely to use maternal and child health services
hiv aids
  • About 33 million infected worldwide
    • Killed 25 million since 1981
  • Developed countries have reduced speed at which HIV-infected people develop AIDS with antiretroviral drugs
    • Underdeveloped countries may have a smaller percentage of population, but a high percentage of HIV positives in the population.
population trends
Population Trends
  • Population never exceeded 10 million during the first 2-5 million years of human existence.
  • Population growth has continued despite the fertility rate decline due to HIV/AIDS
  • Population is doubling every 58 years
    • Will quadruple in 116 years
  • If the rate slows, it is expected that families would be limited to 2 children per family.
child marriage
Child Marriage
  • Then: Originally to protect unwelcomed sexual advances and gain economic security
  • Now: The girl has a life of sexual and economic servitude.
  • Often leads to little or no formal education for girls
early marriage
Early Marriage
  • Provides more years of conception to occur.
  • Decreases the parent’s years of schooling and limits their employment opportunities.
  • China was the first country to raise the average age of marriage. They passed a law of with a legal minimum marriage age (1980).
  • Delays the resumption of menstruation
  • Safer in developing / underdeveloped countries
  • Bottle feed baby's more likely to experience respiratory infection and diarrhea
infant child mortality
Infant & Child Mortality
  • High infant mortality promotes high fertility
  • Lower infant and child mortality will lead to population growth
  • Long term effects are more important
    • Health and Education
gender preferences
Gender Preferences
  • Male Preference
    • Economic factors: The value assigned to women's work and ability to contribute to family income.
    • Social Factors: Kinship, marriage patterns and religion
    • Psychological Factors: Influence on parents decisions about size and composition of families.
gender preferences1
Gender Preferences
  • Girls have better survival rates then boys
  • Women normally live longer then men.
  • In underdeveloped countries the data varies due to customs and traditions.
benefits costs of children
Benefits & Costs of Children
  • In underdeveloped countries the benefits of having a child exceeds the costs.
  • The value of children changes family growth and economic development of another countries
  • First child is most important
  • Second child more of a companion
  • Third and on pleasure is derived from watching children grow
what is
What is?


Hormonal Pills

Surgical Sterilization, Vasectomy

around the world
Around the World

70 – 80 %

20% or less


Russia: More then half of pregnancies end in abortions

It is common even in countries where its mostly considered illegal.

World: 1 in 3 Pregnancies end in Abortion

what it affects
What it affects
  • Economic Growth
  • Savings
  • Investment
  • Consumption
  • Labor Markets
  • Pensions
  • Taxation
  • Wealth
  • Property
  • Personal Care
what s causing it
What’s causing it
  • Advancement in Medicine
  • Everyone’s goal to keep loved ones forever
  • In the year 2050, people older then 65 will outweigh the entire population
  • Oldest old live in developed countries
what s in it for us
What's in it for us?
  • Higher Health-Care costs
  • Social Security dissolvent