X-ray tube. Dr. Roentgen used a Crookes-Hittorf tube to make the first x-ray image. There was no shielding so x-rays were emitted in all directions. The X-Ray Tube Development. This is the variety of tube designs available in 1948.
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There was no shielding so x-rays were emitted in all directions.The X-Ray Tube Development
The Coolidge tube , the first to use a heated filament to obtain electrons was still available.The X-Ray Tube Development
The x-ray photons are generated isotropically or in all directions.
The housing is designed to limit the beam to window.Protective Housing
The tube can not have more than 100 mR at 1 m (26 µ C/kg) / Hour when operated at its maximum output.Protective Housing-leakage radiation
On some tubes, the housing also contains oil that provides more insulation and a thermal cushion.
Never hold the tube during an exposure.
Never use the cables or terminals as handles.Protective Housing – prevent damage
Some housing have a fan for cooling.Protective Housing- supply of high voltage
The window is a 5 cm square with a thin section of glass where the useful beam is emitted.The X-Ray Tube Glass Envelope
The focusing cupThe Cathode
Two foci provide the choice of quick exposures or high resolution.
The filaments are made of thoriated tungsten.The Filaments
High melting point of 3410°C.
Comparaivelly Low work function (emits electrons at lower temperatures )
High tensile strength
Flexibility to be turned to a thin spiral
Electrons are produced by thermionic emission when a 4 A or higher current is applied.The Filaments
Because of that the tube current (mA) increases when the anode voltage (kV) is increased
This is against the basic requirement in radiography ; which requires independent varaition of kV and mASpace Charge Effect
After saturation the tube current is independent of the kV
Above 1000 mA space charge limited exposure can be a major problem.Saturation Current
Tube output is low
Long exposure times over 100ms
Larger focal spots –low resolution
Heat is confined to a small areaThe Stationary Anode
The heat is not confined to a small area.The Rotating Anode
Tungsten is used for three reasons
High atomic number
High melting point..
Rhenium is used to increase the surface properties to minimise the pitting and cracking of the targetThe Target
The rotor is the rotating part of an electromagnetic induction motor.
It spins at 3000/3400 rpm.
High speed anodes spin at 9,000/10,000 rpm.The Rotating Anode - speed
After the exposure is completed, it slows by reversing the motor.
This is necessary to avoid excessive wear and tear of the bearingsBreaking The Rotating Anode
The heat must be rapidly dissipated from the target.
Molybdenum and copper are used to rapidly transfer the heat from the target.
The anode dissipates heat by radiating towards the glass envelopDissipation of heat from the target