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Neural Communication. The Nerve Impulse. Neural Communication. Otto Loewi. Nobel Prize in 1936 Forced to leave Germany in 1938 Became US citizen in 1941 Worked at Woods Hole Institute Name pronounced as “low”. Loewi’s Experiment. KW 5-2. The first known neurotransmitter. acetylcholine

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Otto loewi l.jpg
Otto Loewi

  • Nobel Prize in 1936

  • Forced to leave Germany in 1938

  • Became US citizen in 1941

  • Worked at Woods Hole Institute

  • Name pronounced as “low”



The first known neurotransmitter l.jpg
The first known neurotransmitter

  • acetylcholine

  • first neurotransmitter identified (by Otto Loewi, 1921)

  • Movement: causes muscles to contract

  • Memory: dies in Alzheimer’s disease



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Ach Pathways

KW 5-19



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Steps

KW 5-5



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ACh Synthesis

Acetylcholine

Bonded to form







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Modifying Neural Messages

  • drug agonists - enhance potency of neurotransmitter

  • drug antagonists - reduce effectiveness


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Neurotransmitter

molecule

Receiving cell

membrane

Agonist mimics

neurotransmitter

Receptor site on

receiving neuron

Antagonist

blocks

neurotransmitter

Agonist and Antagonists


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Pain Killers

  • Endorphins

  • natural opiates

  • natural key

  • Morphine

  • Opium poppy

  • Agonist

  • Naloxone

  • Antagonist






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Ach and AChE

KW 5-11



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Monoamine Neurotransmitters

  • the catecholamines:

    • Dopamine

      • found at substantia nigra and limbic system

      • regulates emotion & movement

    • Norepinephrine

      • found in brain stem and subcortex

      • regulates emotion, reward, sleep, mood

    • Epinephrine

      • Found adrenal glands

      • may help regulate blood pressure




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Dopamine pathways

Neural Communication


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Monoamine Neurotransmitters

  • Serotonin

    • found in raphe nuclei in brain stem

    • regulates temperature, sensory perception and sleep onset

    • LSD and antidepressants affect serotonin (antidepressants particularly affect serotonin reuptake)




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Neural Communication

Serotonin pathways