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DNA Structure Review. 1 . What is DNA ?. DNA Structure. DNA is a nucleic acid found in every living thing. It contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function. This structure represents a polymer. DNA Structure. 2. What are the individual units called?.

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DNA Structure Review


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    1. DNA Structure Review

    2. 1. What is DNA? DNA Structure DNA is a nucleic acid found in every living thing. It contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function.

    3. This structure represents a polymer. DNA Structure 2. What are the individual units called? They are called monomers

    4. 3. What does poly mean? Poly means ‘many’ and polymer means ‘many pieces.’ DNA Structure 4. What does mono mean? Mono means ‘one’ and monomer means ‘one piece.’

    5. 5. What does DNA stand for? Some examples of eukaryotes are people, cats, mice, birds, lizards, frogs, trees, flowers, bees, spiders, molds, yeast, and paramecia. DNA Structure Deoxyribonucleic acid 6. In what area of a eukaryotic cell is it found? In eukaryotes DNA is found in the nucleus. Bacteria are prokaryotes 7. In what area of a prokaryotic cell is it found? Because prokaryotes do not have a nucleus, DNA is found floating free in the cytoplasm.

    6. 8. How does DNA differ between eukaryotes (like people) and prokaryotes (like bacteria)? DNA Structure Prokaryotes have much less DNA than do eukaryotes. Prokaryotes have only one chromosome, which is circular. Eukaryotes have multiple chromosomes, which are rod-shaped.

    7. 8. How does DNA differ between eukaryotes (like people) and prokaryotes (like bacteria)? DNA Structure In eukaryotes strands of DNA are wrapped around packaging molecules called histones, forming bead-like structures called nucleosomes. Prokaryotes do not use packaging molecules, so their DNA is referred to as ‘naked DNA.’

    8. 9. How is DNA the same in eukaryotes (like people) and prokaryotes (like bacteria)? DNA Structure The DNA in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is made of exactly the same components. The DNA in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes has the same double helix shape.

    9. 10. List the four nitrogenous bases that make up DNA. Adenine DNA Structure Thymine Guanine Cytosine

    10. 11. State the base-pairing rule. DNA Structure Adeninealways pairs with Thymine Cytosinealways pairs with Guanine

    11. 12. Using the components of DNA shown below, draw a cytosine nucleotide. DNA Structure A nucleotide

    12. 13. Redraw the six nucleotides below to form a DNA molecule. DNA Structure Notice how one strand has to be upside down.

    13. 14. Identify the types of bonds between the molecules. A. DNA Structure C. B.

    14. 14. Identify the types of bonds between the molecules. Hydrogen bond DNA Structure Phosphodiester bond Covalent bond

    15. 15. Increasing temperatures will cause DNA to vibrate placing stress on its chemical bonds. Which bond type shown below would be the first to break? DNA Structure Hydrogen bonds would break first because the forces of attraction are much weaker than those of covalent bonds. Hydrogen bond Covalent bond

    16. 16. What term describes the fact that one strand in DNA runs one way while the other strand runs in reverse? DNA Structure Antiparallel

    17. 17. What term describes the shape of DNA? Double Helix DNA Structure