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Diabetes. Prepared by: Nadia jradi Masri , m.D. Definition. A group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar because : The body does not produce enough insulin or The receptor cells do not respond to the produced insulin. Pancreas. Diabetes - types.

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  1. Diabetes Prepared by: Nadia jradiMasri, m.D

  2. Definition A group of metabolicdiseases in which a person has highbloodsugarbecause: The body does not produceenoughinsulin or The receptorcells do not respond to the producedinsulin

  3. Pancreas

  4. Diabetes- types Type I: 10% of cases Type II: Most common type GestationalDiabetes: duringpregnancy

  5. DM I -Diagnosed in childhood -Cause iscontroversial (couldbe immune mediated)

  6. DM I

  7. DiabetesMellitus Type 2

  8. Diabetesmellitus Type II Causes: An interactionbetweengeneticpredisposition & lifestylefactors Life time risk of developping DMII is5-10 x higherin 1st degree relatives (sister/Brother/son/Daughter) of a personwith DMII compared to a personwith no familyhistory of DM II The main riskfactors are a dietrich in refinedsugars, obesity and lack of physicalexercise

  9. GestationalDiabetes Affects 4% of pregnancies The cause is unknown Many complications can happen to the baby It usually goes away after delivery

  10. Diabetes- symptoms

  11. Things to know.. Eating sweets or sugar does not cause diabetes Sometimes an accident or an illness may reveal diabetes if it is already there, but they do not cause it You cannot catch diabetes from somebody!

  12. DiabetesMellitus- Treatment It is a chronicdisease Goal is to maintain normal blood glucose levels Consists of: - dietarytreatment - Excercise - Medications

  13. DiabetesMellitus - treatment Dietary management: Use of artificialsweeteners (aspartame, saccharin..) Low fat diet Low sodium diet High fiberdiet Avoidweight gain

  14. Insulin injections DiabetesMellitus I - Treatment

  15. InsulinPump DiabetesMellitus I - Treatment

  16. DiabetesMellitus- treatment Diabetesmellitus Type II: Oral medications: increasesensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin, or increase the secretion of insulin Last resort: Insulin

  17. Diabetesmellitus - Complications A. Vascular Complications- vasculopathy: Coronaryheartdiseases Stroke

  18. Diabetesmellitus - Complications B. Retinopathy(Disease of the eyes) canlead to blindness

  19. Diabetesmellitus - Complications C. Nephropathy(Disease of the kidneys) canlead to kidneyfailure and need for dialysis

  20. Diabetesmellitus - Complications D. Neuropathy(Disease of the nervous system) canlead to foot ulceration and possible amputation

  21. Diabetic foot Diabetes was responsible for 59% of limb amputations in Lebanon in 2007

  22. DiabetesMellitus - Prognosis Regularmedical care, compliancewithdietary and medicaltreatment are ESSENTIAL

  23. Diabetesmellitus - Prognosis Despite the risksassociated, most people can live active lives and continue to enjoy the foods and activitiestheyenjoyedbeforebeingdiagnosed

  24. In Lebanon Almost 1 in 6 lebaneseindividuals suffer from diabetes The latest data show that nearly a quarter of a million lebanese remain undiagnosed Lebanon occupies the 22nd highest rate of diabetes in the world, ahead of many western countries More than 95% of cases are due to modern lifestyles: Poor diet, lack of exercise and rising obesity

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