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Diabetes. FNEP STAFF TRAINING ONLY, DO NOT USE WITH FNEP PARTICIPANTS . Melissa Bess Nutrition and Health Education Specialist. 07/2007. Overview. Statistics What is diabetes? Blood glucose Types of diabetes Diabetes pyramid/nutrition Relation to other chronic diseases Prevention

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diabetes

Diabetes

FNEP STAFF TRAINING ONLY, DO NOT USE WITH FNEP PARTICIPANTS

Melissa Bess

Nutrition and Health Education Specialist

07/2007

overview
Overview
  • Statistics
  • What is diabetes?
  • Blood glucose
  • Types of diabetes
  • Diabetes pyramid/nutrition
  • Relation to other chronic diseases
  • Prevention
  • Are you at risk?
  • Myths about diabetes
statistics
Statistics
  • 20.8 million children and adults
  • 7% of the population
  • 14.6 million = diagnosed
  • 6.2 million = unaware
  • About equal in men and women
  • 2 to 4 times higher in non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanic/Latino American, American Indian, and Asian/Pacific than non-Hispanic whites
  • 5th deadliest disease in U.S., no cure
what is diabetes
What is diabetes?
  • Carbs digested into glucose
  • Glucose = energy for cells
  • Insulin (hormone) “unlocks” cells for glucose
  • In diabetes:
    • Not enough insulin
    • Insulin doesn’t work properly
  • Exact cause is mystery but genetics and environment plays a role
when things work correctly
When things work correctly

Glucose enters the cell

what goes wrong in diabetes
What goes wrong in diabetes

(Slide depicts insulin resistance – Body can’t use insulin)

blood glucose
Blood glucose
  • Hypoglycemia
    • Low blood glucose
  • Hyperglycemia
    • High blood glucose
  • Fasting blood glucose
    • Healthy = under 100
    • Pre-diabetes = 100-125
    • Diabetes – 125 or higher
types of diabetes
Types of diabetes
  • Type I
    • Body does NOT produce insulin
    • 5-10% of Americans
    • Used to be called “juvenile-onset”
  • Type II
    • Insulin resistance – body doesn’t use insulin properly
    • May be combined with insulin deficiency
    • Larger percentage of people
    • Used to be called “adult-onset”
types of diabetes9
Types of diabetes
  • Gestational diabetes
    • 4% of pregnant women in the U.S. each year
    • Usually goes away after pregnancy
  • Pre-diabetes
    • Higher blood glucose levels than normal, but not high enough for diagnosis
    • 54 million Americans
    • Proper steps can delay or prevent diabetes
symptoms of developing diabetes
Symptoms of developing diabetes
  • Extreme thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Contact a doctor if you exhibit these symptoms
diabetes pyramid nutrition
Diabetes pyramid/nutrition

Source: American Diabetes Association

diabetes pyramid nutrition12
Diabetes pyramid/nutrition
  • Carbs
  • What food groups are higher in carbs?
  • Differences from Mypyramid
  • Serving sizes
  • Heart-healthy eating
  • Fiber, vitamins, minerals, etc.
chronic diseases
Chronic diseases
  • Those with diabetes:
    • 2x higher risk for heart disease
    • 4x higher risk for stroke
  • Other complications:
    • Foot problems
    • Eye problems
    • Kidney problems
    • Teeth/gum problems
  • People with diabetes must take care of themselves!
prevention of diabetes
Prevention of diabetes
  • Healthy eating
  • Exercise
    • Exercise helps cell uptake glucose more effectively
  • Lose extra weight
  • Monitor blood glucose
are you at risk
Are you at risk?
  • Let’s take the quiz
myths about diabetes
Myths about diabetes
  • Eating too much sugar causes diabetes
  • You should never eat carbs if you have diabetes
  • If you have pre-diabetes, there is nothing you can do to prevent Type II diabetes
  • You can catch diabetes from someone else
  • Sugar raises blood glucose/blood sugar more than other carbs do
  • Herbs and natural supplements can help prevent or treat diabetes
for more info
For more info
  • American Diabetes Association
    • www.diabetes.org
  • National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
    • http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/