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Fungi. PURPLE CORAL FUNGUS Clavaria. RUBBER CUP FUNGUS Sarcosorna. SULFUR SHELF FUNGUS Polyporus. TRUMPET CHANTARELLE Caraterellus. SCARLET HOOD Hygrophorus. BIG LAUGHING MUSHROOM Gymnophilus. The light red coral Fungus, Ramaria. The shelf Fungus, Polyporus. A.ocreata

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Presentation Transcript
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PURPLE CORAL FUNGUSClavaria

RUBBER CUP FUNGUSSarcosorna

SULFUR SHELF FUNGUSPolyporus

TRUMPET CHANTARELLECaraterellus

SCARLET HOODHygrophorus

BIG LAUGHING MUSHROOMGymnophilus

slide3

The light

red coral

Fungus,

Ramaria

The shelf

Fungus,

Polyporus

slide4

A.ocreata

Very poisonous

Fly Agaric mushroom, Amanita muscaria

Causes hallucinations when eaten.

key concepts
Key Concepts:

Fungi are heterotrophs

Fungi and bacteria are the decomposers of the biosphere

Fungal enzymes are secreted outside their body which digest food

Most fungi are multicelled

Fungal spores develop from hyphae

Many fungi are symbionts with other organisms

characteristics of fungi
Characteristics of Fungi

Premier decomposers

Heterotrophs

Extracellular digestion

Absorption of products

Saprophytic

Parasitic

major groups of fungi
Major Groups of Fungi
  • Zygomycota
  • Ascomycota
  • Basidiomycota
  • Life Cycles
    • Asexually most often
      • Spores
      • Mycelium
        • Hyphae
        • Chitin
slide8

zygospore (2n)

Diploid Stage

nuclear fusion

meiosis

50 µm

Haploid Stage

spores (n)

Zygospore

Spore sac

germinating zygospore

young zygospore

mycelium develops from germinated spore

spores (n)

gametangia fusing

stolon

rhizoids

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION (mitosis)

contact between hyphae of two mating strains

spores and more spores
Spores and More Spores
  • Sexual or asexual
    • Temperature dependent
    • Moisture dependent
  • Zygosporangium
  • Basidiospores
  • Ascospores

Sarcoscypha coccinia

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ascospore (sexual spore)

spore sac

Morels

ascoscarp

ascoscarp

spore-bearing hypha of this ascoscarp

conidia (chains of asexual spores)

budding yeast cell

other sac fungi
Other Sac Fungi
  • Molds
    • Penicillium
      • Penicillin
      • Camembert and Roquefort cheeses
    • Aspergillus
      • Soy sauce
      • Soft drinks - citric acid
  • Yeasts
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
      • Bread, wine and beer
    • Candida albicans
      • Infections
beneficial associations between fungi and plants
Beneficial Associations Between Fungi and Plants
  • Symbiosis
    • Mutualism
  • Lichen
    • Fungus and photosynthetic organism
slide13

Old Man’s

Beard

Usnea

Leaf-like

Erect branching

Lichen

Cladonia rangiferina

slide15

dispersal fragment (cells of mycobiont and of photobiont)

cortex (outer layer of mycobiont)

photobionts

medulla (inner layer of loosley woven hyphae)

cortex

other symbiotic relationships
Other Symbiotic Relationships
  • Mycorrhiza
    • Young tree roots
    • Mutualistic
  • Fungi as clues to the environment
    • Decline correlate with rise in air pollution
  • Fungi and disease
    • Histoplasmosis
    • Poisonings
    • Skin infections
    • Pneumocystis carinii
slide17

Athlete’s foot –Epidermophyton floccosum

Apple scab- Venturia inaequalis

some pathogenic and toxic fungi
Some Pathogenic and Toxic Fungi

Basidiomycetes

  • Puccinia graminis Wheat Rust
  • Ustilago maydis Corn Smut

Zygomycetes

Rhizopus - Food spoilage

Ascomycetes

Ajeliomyces capsulatus-Histoplasmosis

Aspergillus – sinus, ear, lung infection

Microsporium sp. Various ringworms.

Verticillium spPlant wilt

Monilinia fructicola-

Brown Rot of Peaches

in conclusion
In Conclusion

Fungi are heterotrophs and major decomposers

Most fungi are multicellular

The main groups of fungi are the Zygomycetes, the Ascomycetes, and the Basidiomycetes

Fungi are classified by the type of spores they produce

in conclusion1
In Conclusion

Most fungi can produce sexual and asexual spores

Lichen are mutualistic associations between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism

developed by M. Roig