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Ch 4 – Pregnancy
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  1. Ch 4 – Pregnancy Child Growth and Development

  2. Where the Baby is Formed

  3. Conception • Every 28 days, an ovum is released by one of the woman’s two ovaries. • Uterus is pear shaped, able to expand during pregnancy.

  4. Conception • During ovulation, inner lining of the uterus grows and thickens. If the egg is not fertilized, the lining breaks and passes though. • Ovum travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus. • Takes about 2-3 days.

  5. Conception • When the ovum reaches the uterus, usually it breaks up and leaves the body. • When the sperm reaches the fallopian tube it may penetrate and fertilize the ovum. • This process is known as conception.

  6. Conception • Ovum can live 12-24 hours • Sperm can live 48-72 hours • Ectopic pregnancy is when the baby starts to grow in the fallopian tubes instead of the uterus. • Dangerous for the mother and does not end with a live birth.

  7. Role of Genetics • Inherit physical traits, talents, and abilities from parents. • At conception babies get 46 chromosomes. • Each chromosome has hundreds of genes. • Only identical twins have the same DNA

  8. Dominant and Recessive Genes • Dominant gene is the “stronger” one. • Recessive gene is the “weaker” one. • Only expressed when it is received from both parents. • XX girl XY boy.

  9. Multiple Pregnancy • When two or more babies develop in the same pregnancy • Twins are the most common • Occur in 3% of pregnancies

  10. Multiple Pregnancy •

  11. Multiple Pregnancy • Fraternalchildren develop from two or more ova and have a different genetic makeup • most common • each baby has own chorion • Identical children develop from same ova and sperm and have the same genetic makeup • Mixed types of pregnancy must include fraternal and identical babies

  12. 4.1 Vocab • Ovum Infertility • Uterus Surrogate • Fallopian tube Prenatal Development • Sperm Zygote • Conception Embryo • Chromosome Amniotic fluid • Gene Placenta • Genome Umbilical cord • DNA fetus

  13. Prenatal Development • Prenatal developmenttakes place between conception and birth • There are 3 stages in prenatal development • germinal stage • embryonic stage • fetal stage

  14. Germinal Stage (Zygote) • The first stage of development • From conception to 2 weeks • Zygote forms • Implantation of egg occurs (at 10 days)

  15. Zygote

  16. Embryonic Stage (Embryo) • Embryonic stage is the second stage of development, lasts about six weeks • most crucial to development • baby is called an embryo • development of most body systems • heart begins to beat • cartilage is present before bones form • substances pass from mother’s placenta through the umbilical cord

  17. Embryo

  18. Fetal Stage (Fetus) • Fetal stage is the third stage of pregnancy, lasts from about nine weeks after conception until birth • bone starts to replace cartilage • baby is known as a fetus • all parts of the body mature • overall size increases quickly • hear heartbeat in the third month • quickening (when the fetus moves) begins between the fourth and fifth months

  19. Fetus

  20. Reverse Conception Calendar •

  21. Fetal Stage Cont. • Age of viability is the age at which a baby could survive if born, 28 weeks • still need extensive medical care • better chance of survival each week the baby is not born • During last two months of pregnancy, • inner layer of lungs produces substance that allows for breathing air • receives immunities from mother in the ninth month

  22. Month-by-Month Posters • Nine groups – 1 group for each month of pregnancy • Must include: • an overall description of what occurs during that month • At least five facts • At least 3 pictures • Must be neat and professional. Take your time and make it look good! You will be presenting these.

  23. Problems in Prenatal Development

  24. Losing a Baby • When baby passes away prior to the 20th week of pregnancy it is called a miscarriage. • 15% of pregnancies • After the 20th week it is called a stillbirth. • 2% of pregnancies • Grief is similar to the loss of an already born child.

  25. Birth Defects • There are hundreds of birth defect types. • Can be physical or mental • Birth defect can result in body structure abnormalities or cause a body part to malfunction, as with blindness, deafness, or mental retardation.

  26. Birth Defects • Can be caused by • environmental factors • hereditary • errors in chromosomes • combination of environmental and hereditary factors • Think: What environmental factors do you know?

  27. Birth Defects • Do’s and Don’ts or Pregnancy Poster • Environmental Hazards Wordle

  28. Birth Defects • Cerebral Palsy – varying problems in the motor system • Caused by damage to the brain before, during, or shortly after birth

  29. Birth Defects • Cleft Lip and Cleft Lip Palate – gap in the upper lip or palate that causes problems with eating, swallowing, speech, and appearance. • Caused by hereditary, environmental factors, or both.

  30. Birth Defects • Cystic fibrosis – affects respiratory and digestive systems. Many die before adulthood, although treatment now allows sufferers to live longer. • Caused by inheriting defective recessive genes from both parents.

  31. Birth Defects • Down Syndrome – a group of problems that may include mental retardation; heart, blood, and digestive system difficulties; and poor muscle tone. • Caused by presence of an extra chromosome 21.

  32. Birth Defects • Muscular Dystrophy – Involve progressive weakness and shrinking of muscles. • Caused by mostly heredity.

  33. Birth Defects • PKU – condition in which the body is unable to process and use a specific protein present in nearly all foods. Brain damage and mental retardation can result. • Caused by defective recessive genes inherited from both parents.

  34. Birth Defects • Sickle Cell Anemia – malformed red blood cells interfere with the supply of oxygen to all parts of the body. Symptoms include tiredness, lack of appetite, and pain. Can lead to early death. • Caused by defective recessive genes inherited from both parents.

  35. Birth Defects • Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus – An incompletely formed spinal cord may lead to stiff joints, partial paralysis, and problems with the kidneys and urinary tract. 70% of children with spina bifida also have hydrocephalus, in which excess of fluid surrounds the brain • Caused by combination of heredity and environmental factors.

  36. Birth Defects • Tay-Sachs Disease – Body is unable to process and use certain fats because of lack of a specific chemical in the baby’s blood. Leads to severe brain damage and death, usually by the age of 4. • Caused by defective recessive genes inherited from both parents.

  37. Avoiding Dangers to the Baby • A fetus needs to be protected from many dangers. • These include the mother drinking alcohol or taking other drugs, environmental hazards, diseases, and infections.

  38. Health Hazards to Avoid During Pregnancy • Diseases or illnesses in the mother • Drugs • recreational and prescription • Radiation exposure • medical X-rays should be avoided • Environmental pollution • lead, chemicals, pesticides, herbicides

  39. Diseases and Infections • An infection in a pregnant woman can pose a risk for the unborn baby. • Some infections include: • Rubella- can cause blindness, deafness, heart disease, and mental retardation • Toxoplasmosis- can cause blindness, hearing loss, and learning disabilities or cause a miscarriage or still birth • Chicken Pox- fetus can contract congenital varicella syndrome (scarring of skin, eye problems, limb defects) • STIs – can be past on to the infant (like AIDS) • Syphilis – skin rash, bone or facial deformities, deafness, brain damage • Genital Herpes- can cause brain infection or mental retardation

  40. Drugs to Avoid during Pregnancy • Medications • Prescribed – in 1950 thalidomide was prescribe to relieve morning sickness. The medication caused more than 5,000 babies to be norm with birth defects such as missing limbs • over-the-counter – antacid can harm the fetus • dietary supplements – large amounts of caffeine can harm the fetus • herbal products • Alcohol • fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) • Nicotine – can cause low birth weight, smaller babies, premature birth, and is linked to respiratory infections and allergies

  41. Drugs to Avoid During Pregnancy • Illegal drugs – drug addicted babies; cocaine increase the risk of miscarriage, still birth, premature birth, stroke in fetus, low birth weight, and higher risk of SIDS • SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) • The sudden, unexpected death of a baby under the age of one with no clear cause. • Marijuana and methamphetamine use are also linked to low birth weight and premature delivery. Can cause breathing difficulties, poor attention span, drowsiness, or heart defects in children.

  42. Drugs to Avoid during Pregnancy FAS In what ways do the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome baby and Drug Addicted baby act and look different from a normal baby? After seeing the effects of FAS, what would you do if you saw a pregnant woman drinking? • • (3:03)

  43. Environment Hazards • X-Rays – can cause birth defects (dental x-rays are considered safe) • Paint - • Pesticides • Lead • Carbon Monoxide • Mercury • Solvents, paint thinners, and formaldehyde