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Earth’s Physical Geography. Earth’s Physical Geography. The Seasons – The seasons occur because of the tilt of the Earth’s axis. The Seasons. Earth’s Physical Geography. Looking at Latitudes

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earth s physical geography1
Earth’s Physical Geography
  • The Seasons – The seasons occur because of the tilt of the Earth’s axis.

The Seasons

earth s physical geography2
Earth’s Physical Geography

Looking at Latitudes

Equator – On March 21 and September 23 the sun is directly over the equator. This is the spring and fall equinox.

Tropic of Cancer – 23 ½ N the sun shines directly upon this point on June 21st or 22nd. Summer Solstice

Tropic of Capricorn – 23 ½ S the sun shines directly upon this point on December 21st or 22nd. Winter Solstice

earth s physical geography3
Earth’s Physical Geography
  • Low Latitudes – The area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. This area is also known as the tropics. (tropical climate)
  • North Pole – 66 ½º - 90º N
  • South Pole – 66 ½º - 90º S
  • High Latitudes – The area between the 66 ½º line and the pole. (polar climate)
  • Middle Latitudes – The area north and south between 23 ½º and 66 ½º. (moderate climate)
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Earth’s Physical Geography
  • Essential Questions:

1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the different ways of showing the Earth’s surface. (maps vs. globes)

2. What causes the Earth to have seasons?

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Earth’s Physical Geography
  • Land, Air, and Water
  • Five things determine where people live:

Food, Water Shelter, Climate, Flat Land

  • The Ring of Fire – The name for area surrounding the Pacific Ocean which contains 90% of the worlds volcanoes and earthquake activity. Earthquakes and volcanoes are two forces that shape the Earth.
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Earth’s Physical Geography
  • What is the Earth made of?
  • Landforms - shapes and types of land.
  • Mountains – rise more than 2000 feet and peak.
  • Hills – less steep than mountains and rounded
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Earth’s Physical Geography
  • Plateau – A large mostly flat area that rises above the land.
  • Plains – large areas of flat or gently rolling land.
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Earth’s Physical Geography
  • Water – 97% of the Earth’s water is salt water in the oceans. Most of the 3% of the fresh water is frozen at the poles.
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Earth’s Physical Geography

Climate and What Influences It

  • Weather – The day-to-day changes in the air.
  • Climate – The average weather for a region over many years.
  • Temperature – How hot or cold the air feels.
  • Precipitation – Water that falls to the ground as rain, sleet, hail, or snow.
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Earth’s Physical Geography

The three things that affect climate – Wind, Water, Latitude and sometimes Landforms!

Similar latitudes should have similar climates.

Because latitude affects temperature, geographers know that there are different climates in the low, middle, and high latitudes. Wind and water also play a role.

Hot air rises and cold air sinks causing the winds to blow from north to south and the rotation of the Earth cause air to move east to west.

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Earth’s Physical Geography

How Climate Affects Vegetation

  • Adaptation – Features developed to help plants and animals adapt to a particular climate.
  • Vegetation – The plants that grow naturally in a particular climate.
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Earth’s Physical Geography
  • Water currents also move from hot to cold…how does latitude, wind, and water movement affect climate?
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Earth’s Physical Geography
  • The Earth’s Five Types of Climates:






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Earth’s Physical Geography
  • Canopy – the uppermost branches in the rain forest create a covering that allows little light to reach the forest floor. The rain forest is associated with a tropical wet climate. Very wet and rainy climate.
  • Dry Climates – arid and semiarid climates receive very little moisture. Vegetation is sparse.
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Earth’s Physical Geography
  • Moderate Climates – Found in the middle latitudes. Three types are Mediterranean, marine west coast, and humid subtropical. Page 38.
  • Most of the world’s population resides in the moderate climates…not too hot, not too cold.
  • Continental Climates – Hot summers and cold winters.
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Earth’s Physical Geography
  • Polar Climates – The high latitudes which has the tundra. No trees with low grasses, mosses, and lichens.
  • Vertical Climate – The climate changes according to the height of a mountain. The higher you go, the climate changes according to mountain height.