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Adolescence: Cognitive Development Learning Objectives. Describe the intellectual development during adolescence, emphasizing egocentrism, gender differences, and adolescent concern for privacy and feelings of invulnerability.

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adolescence cognitive development learning objectives
Adolescence: Cognitive DevelopmentLearning Objectives
  • Describe the intellectual development during adolescence, emphasizing egocentrism, gender differences, and adolescent concern for privacy and feelings of invulnerability.
  • Describe how moral thinking in adolescence differs from moral thinking in younger children. Respond to the following statement, “there are gender differences in moral development.”
adolescence cognitive development learning objectives1
Adolescence: Cognitive DevelopmentLearning Objectives
  • Discuss the adolescent transition into high school by explaining how their transition affects both boys and girls, identifying drop-out rates, and citing causes for dropping out of high school.
  • Discuss factors influencing employment choices after high school and describe the gender differences in employment rates and career outlook.
adolescence cognitive development truth or fiction
Adolescence: Cognitive DevelopmentTruth or Fiction?
  • Many adolescents see themselves as being on stage.
  • It is normal for male adolescents to think of themselves as action heroes and to act as though they are made of steel.
adolescence cognitive development truth or fiction1
Adolescence: Cognitive DevelopmentTruth or Fiction?
  • Adolescent boys outperform adolescent girls in mathematics.
  • Most adolescents make moral decisions based on their own ethical principles and may choose to disobey the laws of the land if they conflict with their principles.
adolescence cognitive development truth or fiction2
Adolescence: Cognitive DevelopmentTruth or Fiction?
  • The transition from elementary school is more difficult for boys than for girls.
  • It is advisable for parents to help adolescents complete their homework.
adolescence cognitive development truth or fiction3
Adolescence: Cognitive DevelopmentTruth or Fiction?
  • Adolescents who work after school obtain lower grades.
the adolescent in thought

The Adolescent in Thought

My, My, How “Formal”

what is meant by the stage of formal operations
What Is Meant by the Stage of Formal Operations?
  • Cognitive maturity in Piaget’s theory
  • Major achievements
    • Classification
    • Logical thought and deductive reasoning
    • Ability to hypothesize
  • Can think about abstract ideas
  • Hypothetical thinking
    • Can project beyond immediate experience
    • Involved in lengthy fantasies and “what if” scenarios
lessons in observation piaget s formal operational stage
Lessons in Observation: Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage
  • Explain the different ways in which preadolescents and adolescents address the question “What if people had no thumbs?”
  • Describe how these different answers illustrate the idea of Piaget’s stage of formal operations.
what is meant by the stage of formal operations1
What Is Meant by the Stage of Formal Operations?
  • Hypothetical thinking
    • Can project beyond immediate experience
      • Wrapped up in lengthy fantasies
  • Sophisticated use of symbols
  • Understand, create and use metaphors
  • Deductive reasoning in moral judgments
  • Utopian thinking
a closer look research

A Closer Look - Research

The Puzzle and the Pendulum

reevaluation of piaget s theory
Reevaluation of Piaget’s Theory
  • Changes in reasoning do occur during this age
  • Formal operational thought is not universal
    • Abstract thinking is more prevalent in technological societies
  • May occur later than Piaget suggests, or not at all
  • Do not apply formal operational thought with unfamiliar tasks
how is adolescent egocentrism shown in the imaginary audience and in the personal fable
How Is Adolescent Egocentrism Shown in theImaginary Audience and in the Personal Fable?
  • Imaginary Audience
    • Belief that others are concerned with our appearance and behaviors
    • May account for desire for privacy
    • Explains preoccupation with appearance
  • Personal Fable
    • Our feelings and ideas are special
    • Invulnerability
      • Encourages risk-taking behaviors
what are the sex differences in cognitive abilities
What Are the Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities?
  • Females excel in verbal ability
    • Girls acquire language earlier
    • Boys more likely to have reading problems
  • Boys excel in visual-spatial ability
    • Visualize objects and mentally manipulate them
    • Difference is greatest on mental rotation tasks
  • Origins of the sex differences
    • Biological
    • Evolutionary
    • Gender stereotypes
what are the sex differences in cognitive abilities1
What Are the Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities?
  • No sex differences for performance in math
    • Most Americans have different expectation for boys and girls
  • Girls tend to be more vulnerable when confronted with difficult math problems
  • Sex differences are represented by group, not individual differences
  • Sex differences represent cultural expectations
what are kohlberg s views on moral reasoning in adolescence
What Are Kohlberg’s Views on Moral Reasoning in Adolescence?
  • Postconventional Level
    • Based on person’s own moral standards
    • Stage 5 Contractual-legalistic orientation
      • Laws are agreed upon, but rights should not be violated
    • Stage 6 Universal ethical principles
      • Reciprocity
cross cultural differences in moral development
Cross-Cultural Differences In Moral Development
  • Post-conventional thinking more likely found in urban cultural groups and middle-class populations
  • Self-oriented moral judgment in individualistic cultures
  • Caring orientation in cultures with greater emphasis on others
sex differences in moral development
Sex Differences In Moral Development
  • Carol Gilligan – sex difference reflects patterns of socialization
    • Female – socialized to focus on need of others – caring
    • Male – socialized to focus on justice
  • Does this difference represent a deficiency?
is there a relationship between moral cognitive development and moral behavior
Is There a Relationship Between Moral Cognitive Development and Moral Behavior?
  • Positive relationship between moral development and behavior
  • Postconventional does not appear until age 13
    • Formal-operational thinking may be a prerequisite
    • Education may play a role
evaluation of kohlberg s theory
Evaluation of Kohlberg’s Theory
  • Research supports moral development in sequence
    • Although most children do not reach postconventional level
  • Kohlberg advocated an innate sequence; universal
    • Underestimated influence of social, cultural, and education institutions
  • Postconventional thinking is all but absent in developing societies
    • Universal principles may not be universal
  • Ethical principles of Stage 6 may have western orientation
how do adolescents make the transition from elementary school to middle junior high or high school
How Do Adolescents Make the Transition from Elementary School to Middle, Junior High, or High School?
  • Often move from smaller neighborhood school to larger impersonal setting
  • In transition, adolescents
    • Move from “top dog” to “bottom dog”
    • Often experience decline in grades, participation in activities
    • Drop in self-esteem
  • Transition tends to be more difficult for girls
  • Schools can ease the transition process
a closer look research1

A Closer Look - Research

How Parents Can Help Early Adolescents in School

what are the consequences of dropping out of school why do adolescents drop out of school
What Are the Consequences of Dropping Out of School? Why Do Adolescents Drop Out of School?
  • High school dropouts
    • Tend to be unemployed and make lower salaries
    • Show problem behaviors, including substance abuse
  • Who drops out
    • Children from lower income families and older students have higher dropout rates
    • Early predictors of school dropout
      • Excessive school absence
      • Reading below grade level
preventing dropping out
Preventing Dropping Out
  • Preschool intervention
  • Early identification of high-risk
  • Small class size, individualized attention
  • Link learning to work experiences
  • Involvement of family
  • Positive school climate
  • Reasonable educational goals
the adolescent at work

The Adolescent at Work

Career Development and

Work Experience

how do adolescents make career choices
How Do Adolescents Make Career Choices?
  • Career aspirations become more realistic as child matures
  • Social Cognitive Perspective
    • Abilities and personality traits
    • View of career and relationship to student
    • Expectancies
      • Self-efficacy expectations
a closer look diversity

A Closer Look – Diversity

Ethnic Identity and Gender in Career Self-Efficacy Expectancies

holland s career typology
Holland’s Career Typology
  • Match personality and careers to predict adjustment
  • Six personality types
    • Realistic - Investigative
    • Artistic - Social
    • Enterprising - Conventional
  • May combine more than one personality type
how many american adolescents hold jobs
How Many American Adolescents Hold Jobs?
  • About 50% of sophomores, 2/3 juniors, and almost 3/4 seniors work during the school year
  • Girls and boys equally likely to work
    • Boys work more hours
  • 2 to 3 million adolescents work illegally
pros and cons of adolescent employment
Pros and Cons of Adolescent Employment
  • Benefits of adolescent employment
    • Develop sense of responsibility, self-reliance, discipline
    • Acquire positive work habits and values
    • Enhance occupational aspirations
  • Middle class adolescents do not work to supplement family income
  • Students who work long hours
    • Report lower grades, higher rates of drug and alcohol use
    • More delinquent behavior, lower self-esteem
    • Spend less time in family activities