the parivartan slum upgradation programme of ahmedabad city n.
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 The Parivartan Slum Upgradation Programme of Ahmedabad City . A Presentation by: Gujarat Mahila Housing SEWA Trust (MHT) 404, Sakar IV, Opp. Town Hall, Ellisbridge, Ahmedabad: 380 008. Gujarat State, INDIA. Phone: +91-79-6581659, 6576802 Telefax: 6589095

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 The Parivartan Slum Upgradation Programme of Ahmedabad City 

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the parivartan slum upgradation programme of ahmedabad city

The Parivartan Slum Upgradation Programme of Ahmedabad City

A Presentation by:

Gujarat Mahila Housing SEWA Trust (MHT)

404, Sakar IV, Opp. Town Hall, Ellisbridge,

Ahmedabad: 380 008. Gujarat State, INDIA.

Phone: +91-79-6581659, 6576802 Telefax: 6589095

Web:, Email:

urban poverty dominance shift and manifestation 1
Urban Poverty - DominanceShift and Manifestation - 1

Source: World Development Report, 2000-2001, Page 24.

urban poverty dominance shift and manifestation 2
Urban Poverty - DominanceShift and Manifestation - 2
  • Urban poverty is predominantly manifested in the spreading slum settlements. These slum settlements are characterised by lack of the most basic civic amenities - water supply, sewerage and sanitation, waste disposal, and electricity supply in their houses.

Source: World Development Report, 2000-2001, Page 24.

informal sector in ahmedabad city gujarat state india
Informal Sector in Ahmedabad City, Gujarat State, INDIA
  • Seventh largest city in India and the second biggest trade center of western India.
  • Commercial capital of Gujarat, India
  • Population - 3.5 Million
  • Area - 190.84
  • Decadal Growth Rate (1991 - 2001) - 22.20%
  • Density/Sq.Km. - 18240 per sq.Km
  • Informal Sector comprises 41% of the population.
  • According to a GIDR study, they contribute to 77% of the employment and 46% of the income.
  • Reside mostly in 1029 slums
status of civic amenities
Status of Civic Amenities
  • Individual Water Connection

Non Slum Settlement Slum Settlement 87% 23%

  • No. of people per public water standpost: 133
  • Individual Toilet

Non Slum Settlement Slum Settlement 73% 26%

  • Garbage Collection service available to only 65 percent of the slum population which was very irregular in nature.
objectives and partners of parivartan
Objectives and Partners of Parivartan
  • Objectives:
    • To improve the basic physical infrastructure within the slums, and in the homes.
    • To enhance the process of community development.
    • To build a city level organisation for environmental upgradation.
  • Partners:
    • Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC)
    • SEWA Bank
    • Gujarat Mahila Housing SEWA Trust (MHT)
    • Community
    • Private Sector
parivartan programme the package of services
Parivartan Programme: The Package of Services
  • Water supply to individual households.
  • Underground sewerage connection to individual households.
  • Toilets to individual households.
  • Paving of internal roads; lanes and bylanes in the slum localities.
  • Storm water drainage.
  • Street lighting.
  • Solid waste management.
  • Land scaping.
  • Community development programmes are initiated after infrastructure installation.
  • An informal tenure of Ten years is provided to the community.
programme costs and partner contributions in parivartan
Programme Costs and Partner Contributions in Parivartan

* All figures are per household.

** An independent scheme of AMC for providing toilets was incorporated in Parivartan programme, in response to the community demand.

role of partners 1 ahmedabad municipal corporation
Role of Partners - 1: Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation
  • Identify the slums which are to be upgraded keeping in view the landuse policy
  • Facilitate the partnership by bringing together the partners
  • Co-ordinate activities of all the partners
  • Execute or facilitate the execution of the project through private sector companies
  • Provide its 1/3 share of internal infrastructure and full cost of individual toilet and linkeges of external services with the slums.
  • Document and disseminate the knowledge gained through implementation
  • Integrate the community level infrastructure with the city level systems
role of partners 2 ngo mfi and private sector
Role of Partners - 2: NGO-MFI and Private Sector
    • Assist the community in the formation of neighbourhood committees / associations.
    • Motivate the slum dwellers to participate in the project as partners
    • Link community with other partners
    • Facilitate access to micro-finance institutions as SEWA Bank
  • Private Sector
    • Contribute Rs. 2000/- towards a third of the cost of the physical services
role of partners 3 cbos
Role of Partners - 3: CBOs
  • Form community based organisations with assistance of NGOs
  • Contribute 1/3rd of the on-site cost estimate
  • Contribute Rs. 100 towards creation of maintenance corpus
  • Monitor the execution of works with and liase with the AMC for effective implementation
  • 500 more slums have been cleared for further implementation by the AMC
status quo of parivartan programme
Status Quo of Parivartan Programme
  • 23 slums have been successfully upgraded
  • 5200 families (30,000) people have contributed Rs. 8 million (US$ 177778) for accessing the services of the programme
  • 47 slums have been identified where community contracting approach is being considered for implementation. Works to be started in a month
community contributions for parivartan
Community Contributions for Parivartan

To date 5200 families (30,000 people) have accessed Parivartan and have contributed Rs. 80 lakhs towards the Scheme.

infrastructure development in parivartan
Infrastructure Development in Parivartan

As on December 2001, Parivartan has reached 47 slums, 9435 families and 56,610 people.

impact 1 education
Impact - 1: Education

Comparison of Literacy Rate Among School Going Children of Babalablabinagar (%)

  • 15% of the respondents in Babalablabinagar stated that after Parivartan, they found time to prepare their children and escort them to school.
  • Frequent absenteeism of children from school which resulted into dropouts before Parivartan was reduced considerably.
impact 2 1 productivity income
Impact - 2.1: Productivity & Income

Increase in Average no. of Working Hours in Babalablabinagar

impact 2 2 productivity income
Impact - 2.2: Productivity & Income

Income Before and After Parivartan in Babalablabinagar (%)

There has been a significant decrease in the proportion of very low income group (Rs. 1000 per month) and a corresponding increase in the middle income group. (Rs. 1000 to 2000).

impact 3 1 health
Impact - 3.1: Health

Comparison of Respondents Taking Daily Bath Before and After Parivartan in Babalablabinagar (%)

impact 3 2 health
Impact - 3.2: Health

Incidence of Illness Before and After Parivartan in Babalablabinagar (%)

impact 3 3 health
Impact - 3.3: Health

Types of Illness and Their Prevalence in Babalablabinagar Before and After Parivartan (%)

impact 3 4 health
Impact - 3.4: Health

Average Monthly Expenditure Towards Health Before and After Parivartan - Babalablabinagar (in Rs.)

impact 4 1 social status empowerment
Impact - 4.1: Social Status & Empowerment
  • 94% percent respondents in Babalablabinagar and 100 percent from Sinheshwarinagar that their social status had risen.
  • The same percent stated that their family lives had become more harmonious.
  • Earlier women used to spend 15 Rs. to get a bucket of water. Now they supply water to the adjoining Madrasi Ni Chali.
  • They do not have to compromise on their privacy and dignity.
impact 4 2 social status empowerment
Impact - 4.2: Social Status & Empowerment
  • Marriage opportunities have increased.
  • The CBO’s in both the slums have exercised their discretion and withheld a part of their contribution to the AMC till the water pressure was adequate in their areas.
  • The CBO in Sinheshwarinagar provided a guarantee for 7 women residents of the slum who had taken loan for Parivartan.
  • In Sinheshwarinagar, the residents has got household electricity connection through another scheme of the State Government.
impact 4 3 social status empowerment
Impact - 4.3: Social Status & Empowerment
  • 17% women in Sinheshwarinagar, have taken loans to upgrade their houses.
  • 100% households in Sinheshwarinagar have have invested in constructing water storage structures.
  • 30% of women in Madrasi Ni Chali and Sinheshwarinagar have joined the “Jeevan Aasha” daily scheme of the SEWA Bank.
impact 4 5 social status empowerment
Impact - 4.5: Social Status & Empowerment

Photocopy of the application of the Sinheshwarinagar CBO to AMC requesting to assess them for water tax.

(Original Application)

English Translation

  • IF 500 Slums are covered, (considering average 200 HHs) revenue through porperty tax expected per year is Rs. 2.64 Cr (at minimum tax slab of Rs. 264/-)
    • In addition Rs. 100 per HH for water tax = 1Cr..
impact 5 development of new partnerships
Impact - 5: Development of New Partnerships
  • Parivartan has set stage of partnership with the Ahmedabad Electricity Company (AEC) which is a private sector company to undertake legal slum electrification
  • 1000 households have been electrified and people have contributed Rs. 2 million (US $ 44444) towards electrification.
Some Challenges to the Local Government and How They Were Overcome Due to Successful Partnership with People’s Organisation - 1
  • Issues of Land Ownership
    • 75% of the Slums settlements are on private lands in Ahmedabad City.
    • The local body exploited the Bombay Provinces Municipal Corporation Act under which it is mandatory for the state to provide basic services irrespective of land status. The Act states that local bodies may spend upto 10% of their budget on the provision
    • The elected councilors are allocated financial budgets for development of their constituencies where the preference was to provide paved roads and street lights not considering ownership
    • In most cases there was either fake ownership of slum lords or the ownership was untraceable.


Some Challenges to the Local Government and How They Were Overcome Due to Successful Partnership with People’s Organisation - 2
  • Issues of Land Ownership (cont…)
    • In some cases the open land allocated for agricultural purpose was sold by the private land owner to slum dwellers, where the housing structures were constructed by the residents
    • The slums on the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation’s land which were not reserved for Public purpose were cleared for slum upgradation.
    • The local community based organisation was delivered a written assurance that they will not be evicted by the Municipal Corporation
    • In situ slum upgradation and only provision of basic services has ensured that the residents do not succumb to market pressures for selling.
approach to maintenance of services
Approach to Maintenance of Services
  • Community approach to household level services
  • Minor maintenance to be undertaken by the residents, where the role of an NGO is important
upscaling of the programme a major challenge
Upscaling of the Programme: A Major Challenge
  • A Special Purpose Vehicle in the form of a slum upgradation society is in the process of being established
  • MHT and SEWA Bank are on the Governing Board of the SPV
  • SEED Capital of Rs. 10 crore (US$ 2.2 million) will be provided by the Municipal Corporation annually to the SPV. The SPV shall be an autonomous body within the corporation
  • 500 slums have already been cleared by the corporation for upgradation
impact on the state government administration and policy 1
Impact on the State Government Administration and Policy - 1
  • The Gujarat State Slum Development Policy in in the process of finalisation, based on the Parivartan experience.
  • MHT, SEWA and two CBOs promoted by MHT are on the Steering Committee meant to guide the process of policy formulation
salient features of the policy 1 1
Salient Features of the Policy - 1.1
  • The state slum development policy will be accompanied with an implementation strategy
  • In-situ upgradation shall be preferred to relocation
  • Partnership concept to slum upgradation is recognised
  • The Government shall assist the CBOs in transfer of titles to the slum dwellers through negotiated settlements with the owner at a price not exceeding 33% of the market value
  • The ownership will be joint with first name of women
a note worthy feature of the programme partnership approach to slum upgradation 1
A Note Worthy Feature of the Programme: Partnership Approach to Slum Upgradation - 1
  • A multi-level multifaceted and reasonably long partnership between local body, private sector, NGO, MFI and people.
  • Formulation of SPV has involved taking risk on the part of government officials who had to deal with resistance and criticism from technical and political personnel.
  • The partnership has enabled the government to be proactive in finding via media ways within the legal framework for successfully implementing the programme.
a note worthy feature of the programme partnership approach to slum upgradation 2
A Note Worthy Feature of the Programme: Partnership Approach to Slum Upgradation - 2
  • There is a mutuality in the relationship. MHT and SEWA are participating in the governments advisory and decision making bodies, carrying out studies, evaluations and preparing proposals for the government for international funding as well.
  • MHT-SEWA and CBOs have not only carried out the programme for the government but effectively influenced Government policies and procedures
learning from the parivartan programme
Learning from the Parivartan Programme
  • In developing countries governments are faced with increased pressure for privatisation of services in the context of globalisation
  • However, experience has illustrated that more often than not the government has proved weak in regulating such initiatives in the favour of the poor which leaves them out from the developmental process and increases corruption
  • Given this scenario a better alternative could be a partnership between formal or informal organisations, peoples representatives, capable and credible NGOs. Then the chances of local governing authorities effectively impacting the urban poverty programmes and urban poor are high......This is the learning of the Parivartan Programme.

Thank You...

Bijal Bhatt


Gujarat Mahila Housing SEWA Trust