”Dairy production systems in the Andes of Peru” - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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”Dairy production systems in the Andes of Peru”

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  1. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AGRARIA LA MOLINA ”Dairy production systems in the Andes of Peru” Carlos A. Gómez, PhD Presented at Justus Liebig University, Giessen on 14th July 2003

  2. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AGRARIA LA MOLINAMain campus in Lima with 3 main research sites in the Coast, Highlands and Tropical Forest4200 Students (85 % Undergraduates/15 % MSc level)AgronomyFood technologyAgricultural engineeringForest ScienceRural EconomyEnvironmental SciencesBiologyAnimal ScienceLast year we had 100 aniversary

  3. ANIMAL SCIENCE STUDIESOffers a BSc program of five years in Animal Science ( 50 students finish yearly) and a MSc program (50 students enrolled regulary) Teaching staff of 52 among them 18 professor

  4. Two research groups involved in Ruminant Nutritionand pasture utilizationA.-Profs. Enrique Florez and Lucrecia Aguirre1 Associated professor6 MSc students/ 4 BSc honors dissertationGrassland ecologyPasture-ruminant interactions in the andes

  5. B.-Prof. Carlos Gomez2 Associated professors/1 research associate5 MSc students/ 6 BSc honors dissertationBeef and dairy nutrition in pasture and intensive production systems- Intensive: Nutritional evaluation of agroindustrial byproducts and cultivated forages/ Feeding strategies for small dairy producers- Pasture: Developing of appropriate feeding strategies in andes pastures (Cultivated and natural)Research supported by FAO-IAEA, ILRI, IDRC(Canada)

  6. Natural regions in Peru

  7. Highlands have potential for:Cropping (Potato, cereals) 4 million HasCultivated pastures 2 million HasNative pastures 20 million HasWeather (seasonal precipitation and frost) and altitude contraintsMining is the principal economic activity at present

  8. Milk production in Peru grows up around 4% annually, due to the increased domestic demand for dairy products which are made of imported milk on aprox. 50%.Low intake of milk and derived products (42 kg percapita yearly)Three predominant systems: Coast Highlands Mixed/crop Pastoral

  9. Costal low performance dairy production

  10. Structure of milk-producing farm types (in Ha) and market destination for milk in Peru

  11. Milk production in main regions of Peru

  12. Imported milk powder is more expensive than regionally collected milk, thanks to Peru’ current (effective) import taxation scheme. • Important activities in the highlands • Mining • Agricultural production • Livestock production • South American camelids including vicugna • Sheep • Cattle (dairy / Beef)

  13. Agriculture limited by: Frost events Temperature Water supply SlopeAndean crops (potatoes, Quinua, Corn)

  14. Limited activities in order to evaluate or improve geneticaly cattle in the andes.Originally the “criollo” type of cattle from SpainNeed to use new technologies for this purpose. New goverment program in Peru jointly prepared with FAO to preserve and improve animal resources

  15. Dairy in mixed farm systems (2500-3400 masl)Dairy production and beef prefatteningUtilization of agricultural byproducts (barley straw, maize stover) and cultivated pastures (alfalfa, rye grass trifolium)B.Swiss, Holstein Genotype2000-4000 kg of milk per lactation

  16. Main issues* Evaluation of appropriate strategies to improve nutritive value of agricultural byproducts and overcome dry season effects* Evaluation of supplementary feeding (concentrates-cultivated forage for silage making)* Genotype-environment interaction* Parasites diseases (Gastrointestinal and respiratory)

  17. Dairy in cultivated pastures (2500-4000 masl)BSwiss genotype (1-3 head/ha)2000-4000 kg/milk/lactation

  18. Chemical composition (% D.M.) of rye grass x trifolium pasture

  19. Change of native to cultivated pasture

  20. Fertilization strategies

  21. Phosphorous content (%) in pasture Rye grass / Trifolium Díaz, 2001

  22. Fertilization with phosphorous: Nutritive value of Rye grass / Trifolium Díaz, 2001

  23. Main issues* Evaluation of improved pasture species different to available at present including rzyobium* Selection of appropriate grazing strategies(Stocking rate/grazing pressure)* Evaluation of supplementary feeding (concentrates-cultivated forage for silage making)* Genotype-environment interaction * Parasites diseases (Gastrointestinal and respiratory)

  24. Dairy in native pastures (4000-4300 masl)Criollo X B.Swiss genotype (0.2-0.4 head/ha)Suckling calf + 400-800 kg/milk/lactation

  25. Native pasture includes 10-20 species. No possibility for other crops sucesfullyLand use mostly under comunal managementStrong effect of dry vs rainy season of the year on productivity and nutritive value

  26. Sheep Alpaca and llama

  27. Vicugna

  28. Protein and mineral content of native pastures

  29. Deteriorating effects of mining on pastures in the highlands

  30. Main issues* Dry season undernutrition/Nutrition-reproductive performance interaction Multinutrient supplementation Utilization of block Urea-molasses-Minerals Strategic use of cultivated pastures to complement animals during certain times of the year/Introduction of improved species in the range * Soil conservation (Overgrazing) Development of apropriate stocking rate and grazing management* Genotype-environment interaction * Parasites diseases (Gastrointestinal and respiratory)

  31. Danke schoen----------Muchas gracias