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Food Safety & Quality Assurance. 2013. All 4-H / FFA members who exhibit the following species need to be FSQA Certified Beef Dairy Cattle Goats (Dairy & Meat) Poultry (Chicken, Turkey, Duck, Geese, etc) Rabbits Sheep Swine. Recertify Annually.

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Food Safety & Quality Assurance


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    1. Food Safety & Quality Assurance 2013

    2. All 4-H / FFA members who exhibit the following species need to be FSQA Certified • Beef • Dairy Cattle • Goats (Dairy & Meat) • Poultry (Chicken, Turkey, Duck, Geese, etc) • Rabbits • Sheep • Swine

    3. Recertify Annually • Junior members, grades 4 – 6, need to come every year. • Intermediates, grades 7 – 9 • Seniors, grades 10 - 12 • Intermediate and Senior members can attend an annual training or take the test-out option

    4. Testing Out of FSQA • Intermediates and Seniors may test out of attending yearly FSQA sessions. • To do so – they must take a 20 (Int.) or 30 (Sr.) question exam and receive a 70% passing score. • At one setting, they may take a different exam 3 times if necessary to pass. • Check with your county extension office for the testing dates / times and for any specific requirements for testing out.

    5. Resources • Iowa 4-H Food Safety & Quality Assurance Member Manual & Website • http://www.extension.iastate.edu/4h/projects/livestock/FSQA.htm • Youth PQA Plus Website • http://www.pork.org/Certification/21/youthPqaPlus.aspx • Iowa Beef Quality Assurance Website • http://www.iabeef.org/Content/bqa.aspx • 4-H Livestock Projects Website • http://www.extension.iastate.edu/4h/projects/livestock/

    6. Survey of Americans: • 9 out of 10 • In favor of additional food safety measures • COOL implementation • 64%believe imported foods are often or sometimes unsafe • 58%worry about bacterial contamination of the food supply Pew-commissioned poll – Hart Research and Public Opinion

    7. Who is responsible for safe food? • Producers • Handlers • Processors • Food Suppliers • Consumers

    8. Who Cares About FSQA? • 17 million pounds of meat produced by Iowa 4-H’ers each year • Reputation of the 4-H program • 4-H’ers need to be responsible to the consumer and the food industry. • Industry requirements must be met and maintained. • Many 4-H’ers are further away from traditional food animal production.

    9. 4-Her’s Responsibility • Understand and follow the seven Good Production Practices (GPP’s) • Produce safe food products for consumers

    10. Iowa 4-H Food Safety and Quality Assurance Program Good Production Practices Healthy Animals Safe Food

    11. Partners in Safe Food

    12. Regulatory Partners • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) • regulates medicated animal feeds and most animal health products • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) • sets tolerance levels for pesticides used in food production • Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) • inspects all livestock at federally inspected packing plants and examines plant sanitation

    13. HAACP • A system used in meat packing plants to prevent food safety problems • Regulated by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) • Hazard • Analysis and • Critical • Control • Points

    14. HAACP Hazards can be identified as: • Microbial contamination • Bacteria, virus, protozoa • Chemical Hazards • Antimicrobial and chemical tissue residues • Physical Hazards • Broken needles or metal

    15. HACCP • Identify the risks • Identify potential hazards (risks) • Identify critical control points • Plan the prevention • Set a critical limit • Monitor the process • Plan corrective action • Monitor the progress • Keep accurate records • Review the process regularly

    16. Good Production Practices • Keep accurate records • Veterinary relationship & drug usage • Healthy production practices • Proper care and handling • Feed and Feed Additives • Biosecurity and Animal Welfare • Exhibit strong character traits (ethics)

    17. Good Production Practices in Depth • GPP 5 – Feed & Feed Additives • GPP 6 – Biosecurity and Animal Welfare • GPP 7 – Ethics

    18. Feed & Feed Additives GPP #5

    19. Feeding Program Goal: Most economical conversion of nutrients into lean (muscle) tissue growth or milk production while maintaining animal well-being and increasing the quality of the animal as well as protecting the surrounding environment

    20. Digestive Systems • Monogastric(Simple Stomach) • Consumes diets high in energy & low in fiber – ex: cereal grains (corn, barley, oats, wheat) and high protein sources such as soybean meal, fish meal, etc. • Ruminant (Four compartments to the Stomach) • Consumes diets low in energy and high in fiber – ex: Forages such as pasture, hay, corn and alfalfa silage, etc.

    21. Example Activity Handout - “Digestive Tract of Farm Animals”

    22. Ruminant Digestion: assisted by microbes in four-chambered stomach

    23. Beak Esophagus Crop (2”) Small Intestine (55”) Proventriculus Gizzard (2”) Pancreas Ceca (7”) Large Intestine (4”) Cloaca Chicken

    24. Pig _________________________________________ Stomach (2 gal) Large Intestine (16’, 2 gal) Esophagus Mouth Cecum (10”, 0.5 gal) Small intestine (60’, 2.5 gal)

    25. Capacity of Digestive Tracts

    26. Balanced Diet • Energy (Carbohydrates & Essential Fatty Acids) • Corn, Barley, Wheat, Cereal by-products, Fat • Protein & Amino Acids • Soybean Meal, Fish Meal, Grains, etc. • Minerals • Limestone, Dicalcium Phosphorus, Iron, Zinc, etc. • Vitamins • Vitamin A, D, E Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid • Water

    27. Adequate and Safe Feeds • Read and retain feed labels • Understand the nutrient needs of the animal • Provide a balanced ration • Ensure feed quality and safety • Follow Good Manufacturing Practices

    28. Feed Mycotoxins • A type of poison produced by mold • Found in corn due to very wet weather during the harvest season • Animals (mainly pigs) will not eat the feed • Low performance/weight gain • May want to test a feed sample to see if mycotoxins are present

    29. Feed Labels Feed labels must contain… • Brand and/or product name • Intended species and production phase • Medicated • Guaranteed Analysis • Ingredients • Feeding Directions or Mixing Directions • Warning or Caution • Manufacturer’s name and address • Net Weight

    30. Example Activity Handout – “Feed Tag Information”

    31. Livestock Water Requirements • The most important nutrient that you can give to your animal • Water constitutes ~ 60 -70 % of an animal’s live weight • An animal can live ~ 45 – 60 days without food but only ~ 3 – 7 days without water

    32. Relationship between Water and Feed • Water quality and quantity will affect feed consumption and animal health • Therefore, if you want maximum gain or production from your animals water quality and quantity must be considered. • Think about the Derby contests; Milk production; Animal growth for the fair • Are you monitoring your water supply? Has it been tested?

    33. Feed Additives • Antibacterial agents • Medications used to improve health and performance • FDA approved • Antibiotics

    34. Feed Additives • Growth modulators • Compound that alters nutrient use in animal • Ractopamine hydrochloride (Elanco Animal Health) sends energy into muscle growth instead of fat • PAYLEAN - Swine • OPTAFLEXX- Cattle • Probiotics • Living bacteria or yeast to enhance digestive tract • Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces, Bacillus

    35. Example Activity Handout – “Producing Safe Foods Includes No Residue in Show Animals”

    36. Example Activity Handout – “Paylean and Optaflex Labels” http://www.extension.iastate.edu/4h/page/fsqa-food-safety-quality-assurance

    37. Reminder Certain Feed Additives for Certain Animals • Paylean and Optaflexx NOT approved for sheep • Be certain that what you are feeding is approved for your animal • Talk to your vet

    38. Feed Processing • Grinding • Pelleting • Flaking • Extruding • Roasting

    39. Grinding • Increases surface area to improve digestion • Corn, barley, wheat, hay Feed Processing

    40. Feed Processing • Pelleting • Finely ground material, steamed and extruded • Reduces waste and dust in feed • Reduces animal sorting • More costly • Increases feed efficiency – less feed per lb. of gain

    41. Extruding • Usually done to individual ingredients of ration • Dog food • Ground material forced through a die under pressure Feed Processing

    42. Feed Processing • Roasting • Soybeans contain anti-nutritional factor that must be heated to inactivate it before feeding to swine

    43. Feed Handling & Storage • Identify feed • Keep storage area clean • Number or label bins • Inspect steel bins for leaks, mold • Control rodents • Clean up spills • Do not store near chemicals

    44. Feeding Livestock • Limit feeding • Feed animals once per day • Or feed twice per day • Self feeding • Feed remains in bunk / feeders at all time for animal consumption

    45. Feeding Livestock • Provide enough feeder space • Keep equipment in good repair • Avoid spills to control rodents • Adjust feeders to reduce waste • Monitor feeders daily to be sure feed is available • Adjust feeding amount daily so leftovers don’t spoil

    46. Feeding Livestock • Watch for sorting…indicates quality problems • Plenty of water • Clean waters frequently • Clean feed system after using medicated feeds • Clean and disinfect feed and water equipment between groups

    47. Good Manufacturing Practices • Buildings and grounds • Clean, neat and pest free • Equipment • Accurate, well maintained, cleanable • Work space and storage areas • Separated to prevent contamination • Product quality assurance • Cleanout procedures to prevent contamination & carryover • Labeling • Label all medications, retain labels, store separately • Recordkeeping • Include delivery date, method, carrier, record medications, retain for at least one year after feed is used, store samples for 6 months

    48. Adequate and Safe Feed Keep all feed labels for one year 1997—FDA banned feeding restricted mammalian proteins from rendered animals to ruminant animals (meat, bone meal) This is the documentation 4-H’ers sign before selling their animals.