ANIMAL HUSBANDRY • Deals with care and breeding of livestock that are useful to human being. • New technology must be applied to achieve quality and quality.
Dairy farm management • Selection of good breeds • Provided proper shelter • Scientific way of feeding i.e. quality and quantity of fodder. • Sufficient quantity of water • Maintenance of disease –free • Stringent cleanliness and hygiene
Poultry farm management • Selection of disease free and suitable breeds • Proper feeds and water • Proper and safe farm conditions • Hygiene and health care
Bee keeping or Apiculture • Knowledge of nature and habits of bee • Selection of suitable location of keeping beehives • Catching and hiving of swarms • Management of beehives during different seasons • Handling and collection of honey and beewax
Aim of animal breeding • Increasing the quantity of yield • Improving the quality of produce
Inbreeding • Superior males and females of same breed are identified and mated • Superior males and females of progeny are identified for further mating • Increases homozygousity Pure line can be developed • Exposes harmful recessive alleles, which is eliminated by selection. • Accumulate superior genes • Causes breeding depression
Out breeding • Breeding of unrelated animals either of the same breed or different breeds or different species. • Types of outbreeding- (a) outcrossing (b) cross-breeding (c) Interspecific hybridisation
Outcrossing • Animals of same breed are mated having no common ancestor on either side of their pedigree up to 4-6 generation. • Overcomes inbreeding depression
Cross-breeding • Superior males of one breed are mated with superior females of another breed of same species. • Desirable qualities of two different breeds are combined.
Interspecific hybridisation • Male and female animals of two different species are crossed. • Combine the desirable features of both parents • E.g. mule by a cross between a male donkey and female horse
Artificial insemination • Semen can be stored or frozen and used later • Easy for transportation to distant place • Semen from one bull can impregnate a number of females
Multiple ovulation embryo transfer • Cow is administered FSH to induce super ovulation, production of 6-8 ova per cycle. • Mating of the same cow with selected bull or artificially inseminated • Fertilised eggs at 8- 32 stage are recovered • Transfer of fertilised eggs to surrogate mother
Traits that breeder try to incorporate in crop plant • High yield • Better quality of produce • Increased tolerance to environmental stress • Resistance to pathogen • Increased tolerance to insect pests
Steps in plant breeding • Germplasm collection • Evaluation and selection of parents • Cross breeding of selected parents • Selection and testing of superior recombinants • Testing, release and commercialization of new cultivars
Crop varieties with increased nutritional quality • Lysine and tryptophan rich maize • High protein rich wheat • Iron fortified rice • Vitamin C rich bitter gourd, tomato. mustard, bathua • Iron and calcium rich spinach and bathua • Vitamin A rich carrots, spinach and pumpkin
Single cell protein • Microbes are grown on an industrial scale and used as nutrient rich food. E.g. Spirulina. • Advantages: • SCPs are rich in proteins and low in fats. • They can be easily grown on cheaper materials like wastewater, animal manure, molasses etc. • The use of waste water reduces pollution.’ • They act as the supply of fertilizers, pesticides etc.
Tissue culture • Technique of regeneration of whole plant from any part of the plant by growing it on suitable culture medium under aseptic conditions in vitro. • Advantages: • A number of plants can be grown in a short period of time. • Healthy, disease free plant can be grown by meristem culture. • Somatic hybrids can be raised by tissue culture, where sexual hybridization is not possible.
Somatic hybridisation • Process of fusion of protoplasts of somatic cells of two different varieties or species • Steps- (a)isolation of protoplasts • (b)fusion of protoplasts • (c))growth of fused protoplasts to form somatic hybrid • E.g. pomato
"Never worry about numbers. Help one person at a time,and always start with the person nearest you."- Mother Teresa