STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT IN FOOD PRODUCTION. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY. Deals with care and breeding of livestock that are useful to human being. New technology must be applied to achieve quality and quality. Dairy farm management. Selection of good breeds Provided proper shelter
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ANIMAL HUSBANDRY • Deals with care and breeding of livestock that are useful to human being. • New technology must be applied to achieve quality and quality.
Dairy farm management • Selection of good breeds • Provided proper shelter • Scientific way of feeding i.e. quality and quantity of fodder. • Sufficient quantity of water • Maintenance of disease –free • Stringent cleanliness and hygiene
Poultry farm management • Selection of disease free and suitable breeds • Proper feeds and water • Proper and safe farm conditions • Hygiene and health care
Bee keeping or Apiculture • Knowledge of nature and habits of bee • Selection of suitable location of keeping beehives • Catching and hiving of swarms • Management of beehives during different seasons • Handling and collection of honey and beewax
Aim of animal breeding • Increasing the quantity of yield • Improving the quality of produce
Inbreeding • Superior males and females of same breed are identified and mated • Superior males and females of progeny are identified for further mating • Increases homozygousity Pure line can be developed • Exposes harmful recessive alleles, which is eliminated by selection. • Accumulate superior genes • Causes breeding depression
Out breeding • Breeding of unrelated animals either of the same breed or different breeds or different species. • Types of outbreeding- (a) outcrossing (b) cross-breeding (c) Interspecific hybridisation
Outcrossing • Animals of same breed are mated having no common ancestor on either side of their pedigree up to 4-6 generation. • Overcomes inbreeding depression
Cross-breeding • Superior males of one breed are mated with superior females of another breed of same species. • Desirable qualities of two different breeds are combined.
Interspecific hybridisation • Male and female animals of two different species are crossed. • Combine the desirable features of both parents • E.g. mule by a cross between a male donkey and female horse
Artificial insemination • Semen can be stored or frozen and used later • Easy for transportation to distant place • Semen from one bull can impregnate a number of females
Multiple ovulation embryo transfer • Cow is administered FSH to induce super ovulation, production of 6-8 ova per cycle. • Mating of the same cow with selected bull or artificially inseminated • Fertilised eggs at 8- 32 stage are recovered • Transfer of fertilised eggs to surrogate mother
Traits that breeder try to incorporate in crop plant • High yield • Better quality of produce • Increased tolerance to environmental stress • Resistance to pathogen • Increased tolerance to insect pests
Steps in plant breeding • Germplasm collection • Evaluation and selection of parents • Cross breeding of selected parents • Selection and testing of superior recombinants • Testing, release and commercialization of new cultivars
Crop varieties with increased nutritional quality • Lysine and tryptophan rich maize • High protein rich wheat • Iron fortified rice • Vitamin C rich bitter gourd, tomato. mustard, bathua • Iron and calcium rich spinach and bathua • Vitamin A rich carrots, spinach and pumpkin
Single cell protein • Microbes are grown on an industrial scale and used as nutrient rich food. E.g. Spirulina. • Advantages: • SCPs are rich in proteins and low in fats. • They can be easily grown on cheaper materials like wastewater, animal manure, molasses etc. • The use of waste water reduces pollution.’ • They act as the supply of fertilizers, pesticides etc.
Tissue culture • Technique of regeneration of whole plant from any part of the plant by growing it on suitable culture medium under aseptic conditions in vitro. • Advantages: • A number of plants can be grown in a short period of time. • Healthy, disease free plant can be grown by meristem culture. • Somatic hybrids can be raised by tissue culture, where sexual hybridization is not possible.
Somatic hybridisation • Process of fusion of protoplasts of somatic cells of two different varieties or species • Steps- (a)isolation of protoplasts • (b)fusion of protoplasts • (c))growth of fused protoplasts to form somatic hybrid • E.g. pomato
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