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Maternal and Newborn Health. THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S CHILDREN 2009. per 100,000 live births . Less than equal to 150. 151 - 300. More than 300. Missing Data. Maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 births. Uttar Pradesh 517. 2001-2003. India: 301. Kerala 110. Source: SRS. Other.

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Maternal and newborn health l.jpg

Maternal and Newborn Health


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per 100,000 live births

Less than equal to 150

151 - 300

More than 300

Missing Data

Maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 births

Uttar Pradesh



India: 301



Source: SRS

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Abortion 8%

Sepsis 11%



Labour 5%

Disorders 5%

Medical causes of maternal deaths in India

Source: SRS

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Age at marriage

Percentage of women aged 20-24 married before age 18

Early marriage leads to early childbearing thereby enhancing maternal health risks

Source: NFHS

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Nutrition among women

Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 with any anaemia and

Body Mass Index (BMI) below 18.5 kg/m2

High percentage of women with anaemia and low BMI results in higher risk of low birth weight and peri-natal deaths

Source: NFHS

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Antenatal care

Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 years having at least one ante-natal care

There has been a significant increase in ante-natal care in the last 7 years. Further increases are seen in the latest DLHS results

Source: NFHS

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Deliveries at institutions /

by skilled birth attendants

Institutional births have shown significant improvement in the DLHS results

Source: NFHS

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Birth spacing

Average (Median) number of months since preceding birth

Intervals between 2 consecutive births in India have remained low, adversely affecting mothers’ health and children’s chances of survival


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Post natal care for mothers

Percentage of women having at least one postnatal care within two days of delivery

Only 37% of women received postnatal check-ups within the recommended period of two days of delivery

Source: NFHS

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Share of under-five mortality in India


Infant deaths within 7 days of birth

Neonatal deaths


Infant deaths


Infant deaths between

7 days of birth and within 28 days


Infant deaths between 28 days

and within one year of birth


Child deaths between one

year and within five years of birth


Source : SRS 2007

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Medical Causes of Neonatal Deaths








Source: Lawn JE Cousen SN for CHERG (Nov 2006)

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Birth weight

Percentage of children with reported birth weight less than 2.5 kg

Based on reported birth weight data: 30% in NFHS 2 and 34% in NFHS 3

Every year at least six million children in India are born with low birth weight which gives them a disadvantaged start in life

Source: NFHS

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Initiation of breastfeeding within an hour

Percentage of children born in the last three years who started breastfeeding within one hour of birth

Only one in four children in India are breastfed within 1 hour of birth

Source: NFHS

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Proposed action framework

  • Central premise “.. Essential services for mothers, newborns and children are most effective when delivered in an integrated package at critical points in life cycle, in a dynamic health system, in an environment supportive of women’s rights”

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Continuum of care

  • Critical points for service delivery: Adolescence, Pre-pregnancy, Pregnancy, Birth, Post-partum, Neonatal, Infancy, Childhood

  • Essential Services: Basic health care, quality maternal-newborn care, adequate nutrition

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Continuum of care

  • Key delivery modes: Household & Community, outreach, health facilities

  • Supportive environment: Quality education, women’s status, age at marriage and childbirth

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Key actions

  • Create a supportive environment by promoting gender equality

    • Enhance girl’s education

    • Increase age at marriage & childbirth

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Key actions

  • Ensure continuum of care across time and locations

    • Improve quality of reproductive health services

    • Enhance nutrition of adolescent girls

    • Ensure adequacy of antenatal care

    • Ensure skilled assistance during pregnancy & childbirth

    • Provide access to quality Basic and Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric & Newborn care when required

    • Expand post-natal care for mothers & newborns

    • Promote safe water & hygiene practices at households and in facilities

    • Initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth

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What will make it happen

  • Building synergy and partnerships

  • Generating and sustaining strong political leadership for health of women and children

  • Mobilizing resources for maternal and newborn health

  • Empowering families and communities for promoting health and accessing healthcare