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The Female Reproduction System . Family Life 421 Ms. MacLean. Reproductive Systems. By the end of this unit, you will be able to: discuss and describe the organs of the male and female reproductive system;

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the female reproduction system

The Female Reproduction System

Family Life 421

Ms. MacLean

reproductive systems
Reproductive Systems
  • By the end of this unit, you will be able to:
    • discuss and describe the organs of the male and female reproductive system;
    • identify the different parts of the male and female reproductive system on a diagram;
    • discuss certain male and female health concerns related to the reproductive system.
female reproductive system
female reproductive System

Female Reproduction System

female reproductive system1
female reproductive System
  • The female reproductive system’s primary function is for reproduction.
  • An egg cell (ovum) is produced which, when united with a sperm cell, will eventually form a baby.
female reproductive system2
female reproductive System
  • Although the female has external and internal reproductive organs, the organs of the system are primarily internal.
  • The external organs are called the vulva.
female reproductive system3
female reproductive System
  • The vulva consists of the:
    • Clitoris
    • Mons pubis
    • Labia majora (Outer lips)
    • Labia minora (Inner lips)
    • Vaginal opening
female reproductive system4
female reproductive System
  • The clitoris is a knob of tissue, located in front of the vaginal opening.
  • The clitoris has no reproductive function, but is important in producing sexual arousal.
  • The mons pubis is a rounded, fatty pad of tissue, covered with pubic hair.
  • The mons pubis is located on top of the pubic bone.
female reproductive system5
female reproductive System
  • The labia majora (outer lips) is the outer fold of tissue on either side of the vaginal opening.
  • The labia minora (inner lips) is the inner folds of skin which are inside the labia majora. The labia minora form a hood over the clitoris.
female reproductive system6
female reproductive System
  • The functions of the labia are:
    • To protect against germs entering the body
    • For sexual arousal
  • The vaginal opening is visible with the labia are parted.
female reproductive system7
female reproductive System
  • The internal organs are the:
    • Vagina
    • Uterus
    • Fallopian tubes
    • Ovaries
female reproductive system8
female reproductive System
  • The vagina is a tubelike passageway, about 4 to 5 inches long.
  • It is also called the birth canal; it stretches to allow for the birth of a baby.
  • The vagina leads to the cervix(the neck of the uterus).
  • The cervical opening is very small, but during child birth it opens (dilate) for the baby.
female reproductive system9
female reproductive System
  • The hymen is a thin membrane, located just inside the vaginal opening.
  • The hymen has no particular function and is not present in all females.
  • There are many myths related to the hymen, but many are not true.
  • Some women may feel discomfort with the breaking of their hymen.
female reproductive system10
female reproductive System
  • The uterus is a strong, elastic muscle, about the size of a fist.
  • The primary function of the uterus is to hold and nourish a fetus (developing baby).
female reproductive system11
female reproductive System
  • On each side of the uterus are the Fallopian tubes.
  • Fertilization of the ovum (the joining of a sperm cell and egg cell) occurs in the Fallopian tubes.
female reproductive system12
female reproductive System
  • The ovaries are the female sex glands on both sides of the uterus.
  • The function of the ovaries are:
    • Production of female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)
    • House the egg cell (ovum)
female reproductive system13
female reproductive System
  • Ovulation is the process of an ovary releasing a mature egg cell (ovum) into that ovary’s Fallopiantube.
  • A ovum can live for about two days in the Fallopian tube.
  • If sperm are present, one sperm will enter the ovum. This is call fertilization. Pregnancy begins at this point.
female reproductive system14
female reproductive System
  • If the ovumisfertilized, it moves into the uterus and attaches to the lining.
  • The ovum will develop into a baby while in the uterus.
female reproductive system15
female reproductive System
  • If the ovumis notfertilized, it dies and passes into the uterus.
  • The uterine lining is not needed because there is no pregnancy, so the uterine muscles begin to contract and the lining of the uterus is shed.
  • This lining passes through the vagina and out of the body during a process called mestruation.
female reproductive system16
female reproductive System
  • Menstruation (also called a period) usually takes 4 to 7 days, but can be shorter or longer. Each female’s menstrual period is different.
  • During menstruation, the female loses between 2 and 3 tablespoons of blood in additional to the uterine lining (tissue).
female reproductive system17
female reproductive System
  • Almost all females being menstruating between the ages of 10 and 15.
  • Hormones control the menstrual cycle so each female’s cycle is unique to her.
female reproductive system18
female reproductive System

Menstruation Cycle

female reproductive system19
female reproductive System
  • Because the uterus contracts to break down the lining, the female may experience cramps.
  • Light exercise, a warm bath, or a heating pad will relax the muscles to assist with the cramps.
  • Severe cramps require medical attention.
female reproductive system20
female reproductive System
  • Bathing of the vaginal area is important, but becomes even more important during menstruation.
  • Sanitary napkins or tampons must be used to catch the menstrual flow, and must be changed every 3 to 4 hours.
  • Tampons left in for more than 4 hours increases the risk of infection.
female reproductive system21
female reproductive System
  • Women have certain reproductive health issues:
    • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
    • Sterility
    • Breast Cancer
female reproductive system22
female reproductive System
  • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) refers to a variety of symptoms females experience during menstruation, including:
    • Nervous tension
    • Anxiety
    • Irritability
    • Bloating
    • Weight gain
    • Depression
    • Mood swings
    • Fatigue
female reproductive system23
female reproductive System
  • The causes of PMS are not fully understood, but may be related to hormones or nutritional deficiency.
  • Most doctors recommend diet and life-style changes.
  • PMS sufferers must try to reduce stress, and reduce their intake of sugar, salt, caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol.
female reproductive system24
female reproductive System

How to Relieve PMS Symptoms

female reproductive system25
female reproductive System
  • Women can become sterile through:
    • A blockage in one of both of the Fallopiantubes
    • The inability to ovulate
    • Endometriosis, a condition in which uterine tissue grows outside the uterus, in the pelvic cavity.
female reproductive system26
female reproductive System
  • Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death of women after lung cancer (US).
  • Breast cancer is not preventable, but it is treatable and curable.
  • Females with a family history of breast cancer are twice as likely to develop this cancer.
female reproductive system27
female reproductive System
  • Women should complete monthly self-breast examinations.
  • Symptoms of breast cancer (in women and men) are:
    • Change in breast or nipple appearance
    • Lump or swelling in the breast
    • Lump under the armpit