chapter 9 development n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 9: Development PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 9: Development

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28

Chapter 9: Development

0 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Chapter 9: Development

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 9: Development The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography

  2. Development • The process of improving the material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology • More developed countries (MDCs) • AKA developed countries • Lesser developed countries (LDCs) • AKA emerging or developing countries

  3. Why Does Development Vary Between Countries? • Economic indicators of development • The Human Development Index (HDI) • Four factors used to assess a country’s level of development: • Economic = (1) gross domestic product (GDP) per capita • Social = (2) literacy and (3) amount of education • Demographic = (4) life expectancy

  4. Human Development Index Figure 9-1

  5. Why Does Development Vary Among Countries? • Economic indicators of development • Types of jobs • Primary sector • Secondary sector • Tertiary sector • Productivity • Measured by the value added per capita • MDCs are more productive than LDCs • Consumer goods

  6. Motor Vehicles Per 1,000 Persons Figure 9-4

  7. Why Does Development Vary Among Countries? • Social indicators of development • Education and literacy • The literacy rate • Health and welfare • Diet (adequate calories) • Access to health care

  8. Students Per Teacher, Primary School Figure 9-6

  9. Why Does Development Vary Among Countries? • Demographic indicators of development • Life expectancy • Babies born today in MDCs have a life expectancy in the 70s; babies born in LDCs, in the 60s • Other demographic indicators: • Infant mortality • Natural increase • Crude birth rate

  10. Where are MDCs and LDCs Distributed? • More developed regions • North America and Europe • Other MDCs with high HDI = Russia, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand • Less developed regions • Latin America = highest HDI among LDCs • Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia = similar HDI • South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa = low levels of development

  11. More and Less Developed Regions Figure 9-10

  12. Where Does Level of Development Vary by Gender? • Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) • Compares the level of women’s development with that of both sexes • Four measures (similar to HDI): • Per capita female incomes as a percentage of male per capita incomes • Number of females enrolled in school compared to the number of males • Percent of literate females to literate males • Life expectancy of females to males

  13. Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) Figure 9-17

  14. Demographic Indicator of Gender Difference: Life Expectancy Figure 9-21

  15. Where Does Level of Development Vary by Gender? • Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) • Compares the decision-making capabilities of men and women in politics and economics • Uses economic and political indicators: • Per capita female incomes as a percentage of male per capita incomes • Percentage of technical and professional jobs held by women • Percentage of administrative jobs held by women • Percentage of women holding national office

  16. Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) Figure 9-22

  17. Economic Indicator of Empowerment: Professionals Figure 9-23

  18. Progress Toward Development Figure 9-26

  19. Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? • Development through self-sufficiency • Characteristics: • Pace of development = modest • Distribution of development = even • Barriers are established to protect local business • Three most common barriers = (1) tariffs, (2) quotas, and (3) restricting the number of importers • Two major problems with this approach: • Inefficient businesses are protected • A large bureaucracy is developed

  20. Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? • Development through international trade • Rostow’s model of development • Examples of international trade approach • The “four Asian dragons” • Petroleum-rich Arabian Peninsula states • Three major problems: • Uneven resource distribution • Increased dependence on MDCs • Market decline

  21. Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? • International trade approach triumphs • The path most commonly selected by the end of the twentieth century • Countries convert because evidence indicates that international trade is the more effective path toward development • Example: India • World Trade Organization • Foreign direct investment

  22. Triumph of International Trade Approach Figure 9-28 Figure 9-27

  23. Foreign Direct Investment Figure 9-30

  24. Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? • Financing development • LDCs require money to fund development • Two sources of funds: • Loans • The World Bank and the IMF • Structural adjustment programs • Foreign direct investment from transnational corporations

  25. Debt as a Percentage of Income Figure 9-31

  26. Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? • Fair trade approach • Products are made and traded in a way that protects workers and small businesses in LDCs • Two sets of standards • Fair trade producer standards • Fair trade worker standards • Producers and workers usually earn more • Consumers usually pay higher prices

  27. Core and Periphery Model Figure 9-32

  28. The End. Up next: Agriculture