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RUSSIA

RUSSIA . MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES. WORLD’S LARGEST TERRITORIAL STATE NORTHERNMOST LARGE AND POPULOUS COUNTRY IN THE WORLD A FORMER WORLD COLONIAL POWER A COMPARATIVELY SMALL (142 MILLION) AND CONCENTRATED POPULATION CLUSTERED DEVELOPMENT MULTICULTURAL STATE MINIMAL PORTS.

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RUSSIA

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  1. RUSSIA

  2. MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES • WORLD’S LARGEST TERRITORIAL STATE • NORTHERNMOST LARGE AND POPULOUS COUNTRY IN THE WORLD • A FORMER WORLD COLONIAL POWER • A COMPARATIVELY SMALL (142 MILLION) AND CONCENTRATED POPULATION • CLUSTERED DEVELOPMENT • MULTICULTURAL STATE • MINIMAL PORTS

  3. SIZE, LOCATION, AND SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS • LATITUDINAL EXTENT • NORTHERNMOST POINT: RUDOLF ISLAND IN FRANZ JOSEF LAND (82O) • SOUTHERNMOST POINT: GROZNYY IN WEST AND VLADIVOSTOK IN EAST (44O) • LONGITUDINAL EXTENT • MORE THAN TWICE ITS MAXIMUM NORTH-SOUTH EXTENT AND EXTENDS ACROSS 11 TIME ZONES • RUSSIA MAKES UP 76.6% OF THE TOTAL TERRITORY OF THE FORMER USSR (ALMOST TWICE THE SIZE OF THE US OR CHINA).

  4. LOCATIONAL IMPACT ON RUSSIA’S CLIMATE? 80º 60º 40º 20º

  5. CLIMATOLOGY • CLIMATE • AVERAGE WEATHER CONDITIONS FOR A GIVEN AREA OVER AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME, USUALLY 30 YEARS. • WEATHER • REFERS TO THE ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS AT A SPECIFIC PLACE AND TIME (TEMPORARY CONDITIONS) • CLIMATOLOGY • A BRANCH OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY • CONCERNED WITH: • SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT OF CLIMATES OVER THE SURFACE OF THE EARH • PROCESSES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF CLIMATES

  6. RUSSIAN CLIMATE • AFFECTED BY 3 NATURAL CONDITIONS: -- LATITUDINAL POSITION -- CONTINENTAL POSITION -- LOCATION OF MAJOR MOUNTAINS

  7. CLIMATE

  8. CLIMATE AS A RESTRICTIVE ELEMENT • AGRICULTURE • SHORT GROWING SEASONS • DROUGHT PRONE • EROSION (ACCELERATED BY SNOW MELT) • SETTLEMENT PATTERNS & TRANSPORTATION, see map on pg 126 • INDUSTRY • HIGH ENERGY CONSUMPTION • EXTRACTIVE • PERMAFROST IN FAR NORTH • SPRING AND FALL MUD • SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES - $$$

  9. EARLY 16TH CENTURY(IVAN THE TERRIBLE- 1547-1584) EVOLUTION OF THE CURRENT STATE

  10. END OF THE 17TH CENTURY(PETER THE GREAT- 1682-1725) EVOLUTION OF THE CURRENT STATE

  11. EARLY 20TH CENTURY EVOLUTION OF THE CURRENT STATE

  12. GROWTH OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

  13. REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN REALM

  14. PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS • RUSSIAN PLAIN • EASTWARD CONTINUATION OF NORTH EUROPEAN LOWLAND • CORE AREA (MOSCOW BASIN) • URAL MOUNTAINS • 2,000 MILES LONG (NORTH-SOUTH) • YIELD A VARIETY OF MINERALS • WEST SIBERIAN PLAIN • WORLD’S LARGEST UNBROKEN LOWLAND • PERMAFROST IN THE FAR NORTH

  15. RUSSIA’S PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS

  16. PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS(continued) • CENTRAL SIBERIAN PLATEAU • SPARSELY POPULATED, TEMPERATURE EXTREMES, PERMAFROST • YAKUTSK BASIN • MOUNTAINOUS, HIGH RELIEF • EASTERN HIGHLANDS • RANGES, RIDGES, PRECIPITOUS VALLEYS, VOLCANIC MOUNTAINS, LAKE BAYKAL • CENTRAL ASIAN RANGES • RISE ABOVE THE SNOW LINE, GLACIATED • CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS • EXTENSION OF THE ALPINE SYSTEM

  17. POLITICAL FRAMEWORK • SOVIET LEGACY • REVOLUTION (1905-1917); Read caption, pg 119 and pg 111. • BOLSHEVIKS VERSUS MENSHEVIKS • V.I. LENIN • CAPITAL: PETROGRAD TO MOSCOW (1918) • USSR (UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS) 1924 -1991; consisting of 15 states. • RUSSIFICATION – spread ofRussian culture and population. Including the replacement of ethnic peoples with Russians, esp. in non-Russian republics.

  18. FORMER SOVIET UNION

  19. ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK • CENTRALLY PLANNED (EARLY 1920s) • MAJOR OBJECTIVES • COLLECTIVIZE AGRICULTURE • SPEED INDUSTRIALIZATION • A COMMAND ECONOMY IS ONE IN WHICH THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION ARE OWNED AND CONTROLLED BY THE STATE AND IN WHICH CENTRAL PLANNING OF THE STRUCTURE AND THE OUTPUT PREVAILS • FEATURES OF THE SOVIET ECONOMY • PRODUCTION OF PARTICULAR MANUFACTURED GOODS IN PARTICULAR PLACES • ECONOMIC INTERDEPENDENCE OF THE REPUBLICS

  20. SOVIETLEADERS • CZARIST MONARCHY (<1917) • LENIN • STALIN • KRUSHCHEV • BREZHNEV • GORBACHEV

  21. SOVIET LEADERS LENIN (1917 - 1924) • INTRODUCED MARXIST PHILOSOPHY • REPLACED PRIVATE WITH PUBLIC OWNERSHIP • DEVELOPED NATIONAL ECONOMIC PLANS

  22. SOVIET LEADERS STALIN (1924 - 1953) • ALL ASSETS NATIONALIZED • CREATION OF HUGE CENTRALIZED STATE TO CONTROL ALL ASPECTS OF SOVIET LIFE • PURGES OF DISSIDENTS • COLLECTIVIZED FARMING – took land away from farmers • CONCENTRATION ON HEAVY INDUSTRY AT EXPENSE OF AGRICULTURE

  23. SOVIET LEADERS KRUSHCHEV (1953 - 1964) • GREATER EMPHASIS ON AGRICULTURE • VIRGIN LANDS PROGRAM – SEMIARID PASTURES INTO IRRIGATED WHEAT FIELDS • ULTIMATELY LED TO ARAL SEA ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTER (pg 394 & next slide).

  24. Aral Sea Disaster • See pg 373

  25. SOVIET LEADERS BREZHNEV (1964 - 1982) • HEIGHT OF THE COLD WAR • MILITARY/INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY • ECONOMIC STAGNATION (esp. AGRICULTURE)

  26. SOVIET LEADERS MIKHAIL GORBACHEV (1985 - 1991) • INITIATED ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL REFORM • PERESTROIKA • RESTRUCTURING • INTENDED TO PRODUCE MAJOR CHANGES TO BOTH THE ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL SYSTEM • ECONOMIC AIM: TO CATCH UP WITH WESTERN ECONOMIES • POLITICAL AIM: REFORM OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY • GLASNOST • POLICY OF ENCOURAGING GREATER OPENNESS IN BOTH INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL AFFAIRS

  27. COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION(CONDITIONS IN 1990 & 1991) • A SHARP DECLINE IN AGRICULTURAL & INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION • ECONOMIC OUTPUT DOWN BY 4% IN 1990 & 10-15% IN FIRST HALF OF 1991 • INTENSIFICATION OF ETHNO-CULTURAL NATIONALISM& SEPARATISM, WHICH THREATENED THE UNITY OF THE SOVIET UNION. • STEADY EROSION OF COMMUNIST PARTY MONOPOLY ON POWER

  28. COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION(CONDITIONS IN 1990 & 1991) • LEAD TO THE EMERGENCE OF A “COMMONWEALTH” OF SLAVIC COUNTRIES TO REPLACE THE SOVIET UNION • COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES • THE RESIGNATION OF PRESIDENT GORBACHEV

  29. RUSSIA’S CURRENT ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

  30. RUSSIAN ETHNICITY

  31. CHECHNYA • WHY CHECHNYA DESERVES INDEPENDENCE • SEE REGION ON pg 128 and pg 141 • FOUGHT AGAINST THE RUSSIAN IMPERIALISTS TWO CENTURIES AGO • MASSIVE PERSECUTION DURING STALIN’S REIGN • 1991 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE • POINTS IN SUPPORT OF RUSSIAN CONTROL • FIGHTING AFTER INDEPENDENCE WAS DECLARED IN 1991 • CHECHENS ILLEGALLY INSTALLED A SEPARATIST LEADER • ATTACKS ON RUSSIANS & CHECHEN TERRORISM

  32. RUSSIA’S PROSPECTS • SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL ISSUES • INDUSTRIAL RESOURCES/ MANUFACTURING CAPACITY • TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE • DECLINING POPULATION • INTERNAL FRICTION

  33. RUSSIA’S MANUFACTURING REGIONS (RUSSIAN CORE)

  34. OIL AND GAS REGIONS

  35. SIBERIA • LARGER THAN THE CONTINENTAL U.S., BUT LESS THAN 15 MILLION PEOPLE • VAST, CHALLENGING, UNTAPPED • CHALLENGING ENVIRONMENT • VAST DISTANCES • COLD TEMPERATURES, ARCTIC WINDS • POOR SOILS • RESOURCE POTENTIAL • OIL AND NATURAL GAS • METALLIC ORES • TIMBER

  36. ST PETERSBURG (LENINGRAD)

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