health and air pollution exposure research n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Health and Air Pollution Exposure Research PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Health and Air Pollution Exposure Research

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

Health and Air Pollution Exposure Research - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 98 Views
  • Uploaded on

Health and Air Pollution Exposure Research. Sotiris Vardoulakis. APRIL Meeting 23 June 2009. Passive diffusion sampling Active (pumped) sampling Gravimetric particle sampling Remote open path analysers Light scattering instruments. Passive diffusion sampling

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Health and Air Pollution Exposure Research' - mrinal


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
health and air pollution exposure research

Health and Air Pollution Exposure Research

Sotiris Vardoulakis

APRIL Meeting

23 June 2009

slide2

Passive diffusion sampling

  • Active (pumped) sampling
  • Gravimetric particle sampling
  • Remote open path analysers
  • Light scattering instruments
  • Passive diffusion sampling
  • Active (pumped) sampling
  • Gravimetric particle sampling
  • Bio-monitoring
  • Exposure diaries
  • Toxicological evidence
  • Epidemiological evidence (time-series & cohort studies)
  • Mortality data, hospital admissions, clinic visits, etc.

Air Quality Monitoring

Exposure Monitoring

Environmental

Epidemiology

Air Quality Modelling

Exposure Modelling

Health Impact Assessment

  • Exposure-response relationships
  • Baseline mortality / morbidity
  • Duration of exposure
  • Duration of health effects
  • Age / gender distribution
  • Disability weights
  • Meteorology
  • Terrain effects
  • Urban canopy effects
  • Moving vehicles effects
  • Building ventilation/infiltration
  • Indoor sources & sinks
  • Regional background
  • Location of residence, workplace, school, etc.
  • Transient microenvironments
  • Time-activity pattern
  • Population distribution
  • Statistical person profile
  • Susceptible groups

Atmospheric Emissions

Population Exposure

Health Impacts

Air Pollutant Concentration

air pollution exposure health impact assessment case studies
Air Pollution Exposure & Health Impact Assessment Case Studies
  • “Green Grid” tree planting intervention in East London (PUrE, EPSRC-funded)
  • “Red Route” traffic management intervention in Birmingham (Birmingham City Council & PUrE , EPSRC)
  • Improving Sustainability of the Indoor Environment (PUrE-INTRAWISE, EPSRC-funded)
  • Chemicals in the household (INTARESE, EU FP7 funded)
  • Improved stoves to reduce indoor air pollution in Kenya (Chadwick Trust & GTZ)
east london green grid
East London Green Grid
  • Create a better environmental context for development
  • Improve air quality
  • Improve flood risk management
  • Enhance biodiversity and ecological values
  • Secondary health benefits (e.g. mental health, exercising)

http://www.thames-gateway.org.uk/projects-content.asp?id=160

dispersion modelling approach

Grid cell depth = 10 m

Canopy height = 5 m

Human receptor = 1.5 m

Dispersion Modelling Approach
  • UFORE used to estimate PM10 interception

PM10

wind

air pollution modelling

(μg m-3)

Post-intervention

PM10 (μg m-3)

Air Pollution Modelling

ADMS-URBAN & UFORE

Pre-intervention

University of Manchester & Forrest Research (PUrE)

slide7

Health Impact Assessment – 1 Respiratory Hospital Admissions Averted

Res. Hospital Admissions

slide8

Health Impact Assessment – 2

Premature Deaths Averted

Premature Deaths

red route network
Red Route Network
  • Reduces traffic congestion by removal of stopping/parking
  • Areas where parking is restricted are defined by red lines
  • Road and traffic signal improvements
  • Use parking facilities off the main road
  • Red Routes blamed to be fast-flowing mini motorways disrupting community life and commercial activities.
birmingham traffic management intervention
Birmingham Traffic Management Intervention

SCOTLAND

ENGLAND

BIRMINGHAM

LONDON

slide13

Red Route

Stratford Road

slide14

Stratford Road (Birmingham)

East

NO2 and BTEX passive tubes

West

NOX

analyser

PM10 (TEOM)

14 m

12 m

3.5 m

6 m

6 m

22.5 m

slide15

N

Centenary Square: 17.05

Bristol Road: 25.35

27.09

31.97

Warwick Road

24.76

Weatheroak Road

33.05

21.84

27.77

25.27

23.82

Annual mean NO2 (ppb)

28.31

Shakespeare Road

28.18

22.77

Fulham Road

23.62

29.78

Stratford Road

Wilton Road

Johns Road

30.21

Newton Road

Baker Street

40.41

16.03

31.18

Durham Road

slide16

Dispersion Modeling (OSPM)

NO2

O3

Benzene

Vardoulakis S., Valiantis M., Milner J., ApSimon H., 2007. Operational air pollution modelling in the UK – street canyon applications and challenges. Atmospheric Environment 41, 4622–4637

slide17

Population Exposure Model

Junction

100 m

Street canyon

Surrounding

300 m

Background

an integrated framework for improving sustainability of the indoor environment pure intrawise

OUTDOOR

&

GLOBAL

ENVIRONMENT

INDOR &

LOCAL

ENVIRON

MENT

THE LIFE CYCLE OF

OPTIONS

Use of space

(CASE

STUDIES)

ENERGY PROVISION

Cold/heat

related

Social interaction

s

morbidity/mortality

Sense of control

Winter

/summer

Extraction of

Energy

Thermal

indoor

fuels

efficiency

comfort

temperatures

Fuel

p

rocessing

Psycho

-

social

Modal

well

-

being

Mould growth

switching

Power

& house dust

V

entilation

Cardio

-

respiratory

generation

mites

morbidity

Power

Indoor air

Micro

-

E

missions

to indoor

distribution

quality

generation

environment

E

mission

s

to outdoor

Outdoor

air

Emissions

environment

quality

& wastes

Environmental

impacts

Climate change

(

Resource depletion,

Global warming,

A

cidification,

Nu

trification,

Eco

-

toxicity

etc.

)

An Integrated Framework for Improving Sustainability of the Indoor Environment(PUrE Intrawise)
integrated assessment of health risks of environmental stressors in europe
Integrated Assessment of Health Risks of Environmental Stressors in Europe

Toluene

  • Household Chemicals
    • Toluene
    • Formaldehyde
    • Phthalates (DBP)
  • Policy Measures (e.g. Directive 2005/59/EC limiting the use of toluene in adhesives and spray paints)
  • Integrated Exposure Assessment (ConsExpo)
  • Multi-pathways
  • Chronic & acute health effects
  • Population subgroups
improved stoves to reduce indoor air pollution in kenya caroline ochieng
Improved stoves to reduce indoor air pollution in Kenya (Caroline Ochieng)

http://www.who.int/indoorair/en/

conlusions
Conlusions
  • Relatively small margin for ambient air quality improvement in UK cities, but synergies between air pollution and climate change
  • Improved indoor air quality by optimising building design, ventilation and energy use in houses
  • Large health benefits from air quality improvement (indoor and outdoor) in developing countries
current research at lshtm
Current Research at LSHTM
  • Environmental Epidemiology research
  • Operational monitoring and modelling techniques to characterise exposure to air pollution
  • Health impact assessment of environmental interventions
  • Quantitative Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (direct and indirect health impacts)
slide25

Other air pollution related projects at PEHRU (mainly epidemiology)

  • NERC-funded project on high temperatures, ozone and health (with Univ. Edinburgh) – led by Paul Wilkinson
  • DH-funded project on ozone-mortality relationships (with St George's and Univ. Edinburgh) – led by Ben Armstrong
  • DH-funded project on air pollution and cardiovascular disease – led by Shakoor Hajat
  • DH-funded project on the oxidative potential of outdoor air pollution (with King's College) – led by Cathryn Tonne
  • ESRC fellowship on air pollution and health in London – Cathryn Tonne
  • EPSRC-funded LUCID project on adaptation to climate change and air pollution in London (led by UCL)
  • Wellcome Trust air pollution-related burdens as part of a project on climate change mitigation – led by Andy Haines
slide26

Acknowledgments

  • Public & Environmental Health Research Unit:
    • Zaid Chalabi, Tony Fletcher, Paul Wilkinson, Ben Armstrong, Sari Kovats, Carolyn Stephens, Chris Grundy, Shakoor Hajat, Emma Hutchinson, Sam Pattenden, Ai Milojevic, Cathryn Tonne, James Milner, Antonio Gasparrini, Rebecca Steinbach, Caroline Ochieng, Xiyu Phoon, Simon Lloyd
  • Health Protection Agency (Giovanni Leonardi)
  • Environment Agency (Bernard Fisher)
  • PUrE and PUrE-INTRAWISE consortia
  • INTARESE consortium
  • INERIS institute (France)