1 / 30


AIR POLLUTION AND HEALTH EFFECTS (1). ANTHRACOSIS SILICOSIS. Archeological evidence shows air pollutants in the lungs of mummies . PLEUROSY IN ROMAN TIMES. Rib lesions: evidence of indoor pollution from burning vegetable matter lamp oils at Herculaneum. Lancet 356, 1774 (2000) L. Capasso.

Download Presentation


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript


  2. ANTHRACOSISSILICOSIS Archeological evidence shows air pollutants in the lungs of mummies

  3. PLEUROSY IN ROMAN TIMES • Rib lesions: evidence of indoor pollution from burning vegetable matter lamp oils at Herculaneum Lancet 356, 1774 (2000) L. Capasso

  4. SINUSITIS Common in Saxon times Often related to lack of chimneys

  5. DOSE • Exposure to air pollutants has to account for both the concentration and the time of exposure • Dose can loosely be thought as the product of concentration and time…


  7. The Water-Babies, Charles Kingsley (1862-1863) PERCIVAL POTTS AND THE CLIMBING BOYS • Potts first recognised occupational cancer through exposure to coal tars (1775)… • Scrotal and nasal cancers among chimney sweeps • PAH

  8. BaP • BENZO(a)PYRENE the ultimate carcinogen! • Importance of bay region

  9. BENZO(a)PYRENE (BaP) • Ultimate carcinogen!

  10. REGULATING CARCINOGENS • No thresholds • BaP as an indicator • Risk assessment • Risk 1.5x10-5 per ng(BaP) m-3 (MOE 1997) • What is an acceptable risk? • UK PAH [B(a)P] at 0.25 ng m-3 • Annual mean by 31/12/10

  11. OTHER POLLUTANTS • HCHO – suspect carcinogen but typically unregulated in outdoor environment interior concern via furnishing regulations • PAN –some suspicions about carcinogenicity, but irritant • BENZENE – carcinogen and regulated in EC, UK 5 µg m-3 (Ann. Mean)

  12. CARBON MONOXIDE AT ALTITUDE • Some 480 accidental deaths and 2000 suicides per year in the US • Gas or charcoal barbeque indoors • Poorly ventilated interiors especially cooking fumes on climbing or polar expeditions • Denver, Colorado high CO - high altitude means incomplete combustion of gasoline in motor vehicles, but fuel wood also a significant source

  13. CARBON MONOXIDE IN SUBMARINES • Carbon monoxide levels in. submarines: closed space smoking among crew and equipment • Catalytically converted to CO2 • Smokers have heightened susceptibility

  14. Physical symptoms headache Nausea dizziness vomiting Cognitive Impairments attention problems multi-tasking problems poor time judgement 50 ppm (8 hr) show some symptoms 100 ppm (a few hours) flu-like symptoms 150-300 ppm dizziness, drowsiness and vomiting >400 ppm unconsciousness, brain damage and death. CARBON MONOXIDE EFFECTS Tissue hypoxia and oxidative stress…

  15. CO binds with hemoglobin at 200-300 times the affinity of oxygen CO + HbO2 O2 + HbCO Effects during exercise >2.5-4.0% Smokers as high as 10%, Ambient CO of 100 ppm produces 16% Tent with a kerosene camping stove 21.5% Half-life 3-4 hours. HbCO – aim at <2.5% for non-smokers - time and concentration dependent 10ppm (10hours) 25ppm (1 hour) 50ppm (30 min) CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN (HbCO) http://www.andyrak.com/digital01/hemoglobin.htm

  16. Cilia BRONCHIAL TRACTCILIARY ELEVATOR Bronchial epithelial cells Mucous thicker outside • Synergistic impact of SO2 and smoke

  17. SULFUR DIOXIDE • Despite great improvements still considerable impact on urban epidemiology • Affect on airway function especially among people with pre-existing complaints • Hospital admissions about 2% up for a 50 µgm-3 increase – not especially large • Mortality about 3% up for a 50 µgm-3 , but… • …death bought forward by a days

  18. SULFUR DIOXIDE • Short term exposure 10-15 minutes • 266 µgm-3 (15 min) 35 exceedences per year (UK) • 350 µgm-3 (1 hour) 9 exceedences per year (NZ)

  19. NASA’s Aura satellite 15 July 2006 NITROGEN DIOXIDE Very widespread exposure… in urban areas… Long understanding of indoor exposure especially from gas cooking – wheeze among children

  20. NITROGEN DIOXIDE • Exposure above 2000 µgm-3 required to show bronchial response • Asthmatics not too different • …, but at 800 µgm-3 may sensitize to other allergens • Little confidence on mechanisms or relevant day-to-day effects, but relevance may be the chronic impact. • 200 µgm-3 (1 hour) 9 times per year (NZ)

  21. OZONE Problem of heterogeneity… http://www.cerc.co.uk/YourAir/index.asp

  22. Trees grow better in NY! Nature JWGregg et al 424, p183 10 July 2003

  23. Healthy Inflamed OZONE EFFECTS • Pulmonary system primary target • Biochemical effect from oxidation or peroxidation of biomolecules • Ozone-caused lung damage resembles “sunburn” • Reduces lung function or aggravates existing respiratory conditions such as asthma, emphysema or bronchitis • May cause chest pain, coughing, throat irritation or congestion http://www.sbcapcd.org/sbc/ozonehealth.htm

  24. OZONE • Background 40-70 µgm-3 • Summer 120-150 µgm-3 • 240 µgm-3exercising – detriments to lung function • Recommendations close to background • 120 µgm-3(8-hour) WHO • NZ Ozone (1-hour) 150 µgm-3

  25. HUMAN HAIR OZONE REACTION • Secondary products • Geranyl acetone • trans-2,6-dimethyl-2,6-undecadien-2-one6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one • Decanal Pandrangi and Morrison (2008)

  26. LEAD • Exposure to lead linked to criminal behaviour Jun 16, 2008: US study finds higher blood lead levels correlated to more arrests.

  27. 1,3-BUTADIENE • Some concern in 96/62/EC but never adopted • UK, NZ(?) have set standards • Standards will probably be met Carcinogen

  28. FLUORIDE • Some concern in 96/62/EC but never adopted • Brick making, aluminium production and coal combustion (big source in China) • Indoor contamination of surfaces • In New Zealand largely ecological worries Aluminium smelting

  29. SULFIDES • Hydrogen sulfide from catalytic converters - shifting the oxidation state of sulfur emissions • Regulation based on odour thresholds (7g m-3) • Mercaptans - pulp mills 0.5 ppm (Manitoba) • Thiophenes and benzothiophenes from tyres, combustion etc Odour and carcinogenicity problems...

  30. on to particles….

More Related