Quality in Food Production • Food Production 4
Chapter Learning Objectives • Describe processes to enhance food quality during preparation. • Describe ways to enhance food quality during cooking. • Review advantages/disadvantages to alternative cooking methods for different foods. • Describe classic sauces and other types of sauces. • Explain how to select garnishes and accompaniments.
Preparing Meat • Tenderizing breaks down connective tissue. • Methods that do not involve a liquid • Scoring • Pounding • Blade or needle tenderizing • Marinating involves soaking meat in a liquid seasoned with herbs and spices.
Preparing Meat continued • Aging—usually applied only to beef • Wet aging uses an airless plastic bag under refrigeration. • Dry aging requires special coolers and is done by specialty vendors.
Preparing Meat continued • Curing adds flavor and preserves meat. • Uses salt and other chemicals and seasonings • Smoking adds a characteristic smell to previously cured food. • Requires a source of smoke and heat • Brining tenderizes and plumps lean meat. • Involves soaking in salted water, sugar, and spices
Cooking Methods Enhance Food Quality • The correct method considers the type of meat or other ingredient and requires the cook to know the product. • Kitchen considerations include • Cooking time • Amount of oven and stove space required
Basic Cooking Method 1—Moist Heat • Boiling • Simmering • Poaching • Steaming • Blanching
Basic Cooking Method 2—Dry Heat • Broiling • Grilling • Baking and roasting • Sautéing • Pan-frying • Deep-frying
Basic Cooking Method 3—Combination Method • Braising • Stewing
How Would You Answer the Following Questions? • Another word for “vacuum packaging” is _______. • Poaching is a _______ heat cooking method. • The dry heat cooking method that involves applying heat from below is called _______. • The two classic combination cooking methods are _______ and _______.
Flavoring and Seasoning • Flavoring involves adding herbs and spices. • Herbs are leaves of plants and may be fresh or dried. • Spices come from seeds of plants and are almost always dried. • Seasoning refers to adding salt and pepper.
Sauce Basics • Sauces complement a dish and bring out its best qualities. • Sauces are liquid based and generally have a thickener to make them thicker: • Roux—mixture of equal parts of flour and butter • Slurry—combination of cold liquid and cornstarch • Liaison—made of heavy cream and egg yolk • Arrowroot—starch used in modern sauces
Small and Modern Sauces • Small sauces are derived from the classic sauces by adding different flavorings. • Modern sauces are based on vegetables and fruits, and their textures vary from smooth to chunky.
Garnishes • Garnishes are usually prepared separately with different cooking techniques than those used for the “center of the plate” (entrée). • Three important garnish concerns: • Appearance (visual impact) • Texture (to complement the entrée) • Aroma (refreshing but not strong)
Accompaniments • Must meet the same quality standards as the food • Should complement the main dish • Remember the guideline of “3 x 3 + 3”: • Three colors on a plate • Three textures on a plate • Three flavors on a plate • Three temperatures on a plate (desserts or appetizers only)
Convenience Foods • Can be of high quality and can be stored a long time • Useful for items sold in small quantities or not used often • Can save time and money by reducing equipment and labor • Often hard to distinguish from food cooked “from scratch”
Maintaining Food Quality After Cooking • Managers must ensure that food meets quality standards. To do so: • Check plates and presentations against menu descriptions. • Consider ways to ensure quality through all stages in the flow of food.
How Would You Answerthe Following Questions? • Flavorings made from the seeds of plants are called _______. • _______ is a classic (mother) sauce made from blond roux. • _______ sauces are based on vegetables and fruits. • The guideline, “3 x 3 + 3,” refers to three _______, three _______, and three _______ on a plate.
Aging Blade tenderizing Brining Connective tissue Curing Dry aging Kosher salt Mallet Marinade Key Term Review
Marinating Needle tenderizing Pounding Scoring Smoking Tenderizing Vacuum packaging Wet aging Key Term Review continued
Baking Blanching Boiling Braising Broiling Browned Combination method Deep-frying (basket, swimming) Key Term Review continued
Deglazing Dry heat Flavoring Frying Grilling Herbs Moist heat Pan-frying Poaching (shallow, submerged) Key Term Review continued
Roasting Sautéing Seared Seasoning Simmering Spices Steaming Stewing Key Term Review continued
Arrowroot Béchamel sauce Beurre manié Blond roux Brown roux Brown sauce Classic sauce Key Term Review continued
Demi-glace Espagnole sauce Hollandaise sauce Liaison Mirepoix Modern sauce Mother sauce Nappe Key Term Review continued
Roux Slurry Small sauce Thickener Tomato sauce Velouté sauce White roux Key Term Review continued
Appearance Aroma Center of the plate Convenience food Garnish Nonfunctional garnish (NFG) Shelf-stable Texture Key Term Review continued
Chapter Learning Objectives—What Did You Learn? • Describe processes to enhance food quality during preparation. • Describe ways to enhance food quality during cooking. • Review advantages/disadvantages to alternative cooking methods for different foods. • Describe classic sauces and other types of sauces. • Explain how to select garnishes and accompaniments.