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Human Anatomy-3. Basic Kinesiology. Muscular System. Muscular system – general info. Thanks to the muscular system: ...food moves through digestive tract ...heart pumps out blood to deliver nutrients ...lungs empty and fill to provide with oxygen

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human anatomy 3

Human Anatomy-3

Basic Kinesiology. Muscular System

muscular system general info
Muscular system – general info

Thanks to the muscular system:

  • ...food moves through digestive tract
  • ...heart pumps out blood to deliver nutrients
  • ...lungs empty and fill to provide with oxygen
  • ... we can sit, stand, walk, speak, grasp objects.
muscular system general info1
Muscular system – general info

...is presented by 3 types of muscles:

  • skeletal muscles (in a number of about 660) – move skeleton, are under vountary control
  • heart muscle (myocard) – pumps out blood, structurally looks as skeletal, but works as smooth.
  • smooth muscles (countles amount) – located within & around internal organs, are under involuntary (autonomic) control
muscular system functions
Muscular system - functions
  • Movement – move the bones of the skeleton
  • Posture– preserve requied body position
  • Support Soft Tissue – is related to the muscles of abdominal wall & pelvic flood
  • Guard Entrances and Exits – is related to swallowing, defecation & urination
  • Involuntary Bodily Processes – like heart contraction
  • Thermogenesis – 60% of heat during the rest and 90% of heat during physical activity is produce by muscles
muscular system characteristics
Muscular system - characteristics
  • Excitability – The ability to respond to stimulation.
  • Contractility – The ability to shorten and produce a force (tension).
  • Extensibility – The ability to be elongated (stretched).
  • Elasticity – The ability to rebound to its original (normal) resting length after being stretched.
skeletal muscles terminology
Skeletal muscles - terminology
  • Origin – proximal to the body gravity, usually stable, wide attachment of a muscle to a bone.
  • Insertion – distal to the body gravity, usually moveable thin attachment of a muscle to a bone.
  • Muscle Belly – the main body of the muscle.
  • Tendon – part of connective tissue, which inserts muscle to bone.
skeletal muscles terminology1
Skeletal muscles - terminology
  • Atrophy – a decrease in cross-sectional diameter of a muscle dueto lack of use.
  • Hypertrophy – an increase in cross-sectional diameter of a muscle due to execcive use.
  • Spasm – a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle.
skeletal muscles terminology2
Skeletal muscles - terminology
  • Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers – found in skeletal muscles,which contract fast, but fatigue rapidly. Are lack in blood vessels, but rich in glycogen. Predominate in sprinters, wrestlers.
  • Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers – found in skeletal muscles,which contract slowly, but fatigue late. Are rich in blood vessels but lack in glycogen. Predominate in marathon runners.
skeletal muscles terminology3
Skeletal muscles - terminology
  • Agonist (prime mover) – a muscle whose contraction is chiefly responsible for producing a particular movement. (For example – the biceps brachii is a prime mover that flexes the elbow.)
  • Synergist – muscle assisting the prime mover in performing an action.
  • Antagonist – a muscle whose actions oppose the desired motion. (For example – the triceps brachii is an antagonist of the biceps brachii since its primary motion is extension of the elbow.)
  • Stabilizers – muscles which help to stabilize a joint while the limb is moved.
  • Neutralizers – muscles, which prevent undesirable movement
skeletal muscle types of contraction
Skeletal muscle –types of contraction
  • Static Contraction – Isometric
  • Dynamic Contraction - Isotonic
    • Concentric isotonic
    • Eccentric isotonic
skeletal muscle types of contraction1
Skeletal muscle –types of contraction
  • Static Contraction – Isometric
    • Does not result in any movement of the joint.
    • Often performed against a fixed resistance.
    • Isometric contractions are said to be static since a definite force is exerted with no actual movement of the muscle involved.
skeletal muscle types of contraction2
Skeletal muscle –types of contraction
  • Dynamic Contraction – Isotonic
    • Concentric isotonic
      • Positive work.
      • The muscle produces tension and is decreasing (shortening) in length.
      • Example: doing a biceps curl with a dumbbell.
    • Eccentric isotonic
      • Negative work
      • The muscle produces tension and is increasing in length.
      • Example: lowering a dumbbell (elbow extension).
aging exercise and the muscular system
Aging, Exercise, and the Muscular System
  • As the body ages, a general reduction in the size and power of all muscles occurs.
    • Skeletal muscle fibers become smaller in diameter causing a decrease in strength and endurance, and a tendency to fatigue rapidly.
    • Skeletal muscles become less elastic and therefore less flexible. Movement and circulation can be restricted.
aging exercise and the muscular system1
Aging, Exercise, and the Muscular System
    • The tolerance for exercise decreases in part from the tendency for rapid fatigue and in part from a reduction in thermoregulatory ability which leads to overheating.
    • The ability to recover from muscular injuries decreases limiting repair capabilities and increasing the formation of scar tissue.
  • Extremely demanding exercise is not as important as regular exercise. In fact, extreme exercise in the elderly may lead to problems with tendons, bones, and joints.
  • Although it has obvious effects on the quality of life, there is no clear evidence that exercise prolongs life expectancy.