Unit Three: Eating Patterns and Trends Lifespan Nutrition
Learning Goals • Factor that affect nutrient needs at various stages in the life cycle • The influence of nutrition on lifestyle and disease • Trends in food production and consumption patterns
Reflect: • Think about the foods you have eaten today (record them on a piece of paper) • Why did you choose each of those foods? (explain) • How have you eating habits changed since you were a child? • How do the diets of people with various diseases or health conditions vary from your diet?
Lifespan Nutrition: Pregnancy • Nutritional choices during pregnancy have a bearing on the developing baby • Physicians will often recommend that if a woman is planning to be come pregnant that she make the changes in advance crucial development of the fetus takes place prior to a woman even noticing she is pregnant
Key Terms • Caries • Colostrum • Food neophobia • Foremilk • Hindmilk • Neural tube • Obesogenic • Teratogenic
Nutrient Needs for Pregnant Woman: • Folic acid (Vitamin B9) is CRITICAL for a baby’s development • A lack of this vitamin raises the risk of the baby developing a neural tube defect. • Neural Tube: in a developing fetus eventually becomes the central nervous system including the brain and spinal cord. • Complications that can arise from a neural tube defect include: abnormalities of the brain, spine, and skull. These can result in still births, or lifelong disabilities such as spina bifida. • Neural tube development occurs very early in pregnancy, within the first four weeks after conceptions. • Folic supplements are recommended in the three months prior to conceiving.
Iron is important as there is a need to support the increased number of red blood cells during pregnancy. • These blood cells help to deliver oxygen to the placenta and the fetus. • In the final trimester of pregnancy the fetus begins to build its own blood-cell stores from the mothers blood-cell stores, in order to support itself during the first few months of life. • Low blood iron levels in the mother can result in low birth weight and premature delivery. • It is recommended that pregnant woman take a multivitamin containing iron and consume foods that are rich in iron.
Increased Caloric Intake: • Energy needs are HIGHER during pregnancy to support the growth and development of the baby. • The increase in calories required is not as great as many believe. • If TOO MUCH WEIGHT is gained, not only will the mother struggle from health issues but she will struggle to lose the weight post-partum. • As well it can increase the number of complications during delivery.
Conversely gaining TOO LITTLE WEIGHT can cause the baby to be born with a low birth weight, which increases the possibility of various disabilities and health problems as the child ages. • Pregnant woman are encouraged to follow CFG and the instructions of their health care practitioner. • Despite the fact the fact that they are “eating for two”, the second individual is much smaller! • The general caloric increase is between 300-500 calories a day depending on the person and the point in the pregnancy.
Pause and Think: • What stories have you heard about pregnant women and their eating habits? Cravings? • What factors or influences may cause a woman to gain too little weight during her pregnancy?
Stop & Complete: • Research Skills Activity – complete the questions in your notes. • Answer the four questions from the “Spotlight On…” Activity in your notes.
Pregnancy Nutrition Continued:Food Safety & Sanitation Concerns • Pregnant women & their developing babies have a higher risk of foodborne illnesses. • A pregnant woman has a weakened immune system, making her more vulnerable to infections. • The baby has not yet developed an immune system and infections can cross the placenta and infect the baby. • Foodborne illnesses increase instances of miscarriage, stillbirths, and increase the risk of other complications for the baby.
Precautions: in addition to standard food safety precautions – pregnant woman should refrain from consuming the following: • Uncooked hot dogs • Deli meats (bologna, roast beef, turkey, ham) • Raw or lightly cooked egg products; including salad dressings, cookie dough, cake batter, eggnog • Raw or undercooked meat • Raw seafood; sushi, ceviche, raw oysters, clams, and mussels • Unpasteurized dairy products; soft cheeses (including semi-soft) • Raw sprouts such as alfalfa’s, clover, radish, and mung beans • Refrigerated pates and meat spreads • Unpasteurized fruit juice and cider
Pregnant woman are encouraged to eat the following: • Fish; provides the much needed Omega 3- fatty acids crucial to the development of the fetus • Eating Well With Canada’s Food Guide suggests adults consume to servings of fish a week – some pregnant women are reluctant to follow this advice due to fear of the mercury content of some fish. • Health Canada recommends consuming no more than 0.5 ppm (parts per million) to 1 ppm of mercury as it can have teratogenic effects on the development of the baby’s brain. • Teratogenic: genetic of environmental effect that can cause abnormal fetal development leading to birth defects. • Some fish such as tuna, shark and swordfish have high risk of containing increased levels or mercury
Infancy • The first year of life, infants are growing and developing rabidly, so not only is their calorie intake high relative to their size, but the food that they consume can have noticeable effects.
Infancy • Breastfeeding: health professionals agree that breast milk should be the primary source of food for infants. • Breastfeeding promotes good health and mother child bonding. • Colostrum is full of antibodies and while blood cells; breastfed children are less likely to develop infections or allergies. • Colostrum: is the thick yellow breast milk that is produced immediately after birth and through the early days of breastfeeding. • Colostrum is easy for infants to digest and acts as a laxative making it easier for infants to pass their first stool. • The World Health Organization recommends that babies be fed colostrum within the first hour of birth; exclusively breastfeed for the first six months of life and breastfed supplemented with solid food up until the age of two (2012).
The Nature of Colostrum • Colostrum changes to mature milk within a few days after birth. • Foremilk is a watery milk produced early in a breastfeeding session it quenches the infants thirst. • Hind milk is thicker, almost cream-like and is produced later in a feeding and it is high in fat making the infant feel satiated longer and encouraged weight gain. • Especially for infants who do not have consistent access to other food (due to poverty) breast milk ensures consistent nutrition, it is able to change with the needs of the child, allowing the infant to grow and thrive. • It is also said that breast milk may provide protection from sudden infant death syndrome (Health Canada). • The WHO encourages low – birth weight babies to drink breast milk.
Barriers to Breastfeeding • A small percentage of mothers experience physical difficulties breastfeeding. • Lactation consultants work in many communities to help to correct these issues for a mother and new baby. • Some women’s bodies does physically produce the right hormones etc.to allow for breastfeeding of infants. • Society on the whole has not always made breastfeeding easy; sometimes women are banned from public spaces, or find it difficult to get the permission or time to express milk once they return to work.
Solid Food • Introduced around 6 months • Gradual introduction (rice/wheat/grain product, then vegetables, then fruit) • Should still be combined with either breast milk or formula • A primary concern when introducing food is allergies or intolerances • Health professionals recommend that foods be introduced one at a time to assess a sensitivity or allergy. (2-3 day window between a new introduction) • As a child ages they can begin to have combination foods if an allergy has not been detected; for example stew. • Babies who have a parent or sibling with a food allergy are at higher risk of having a food allergy.
Feeding Infants • Introduces infants to different textures and encourages them to develop the ability to chew and swallow • Choking hazards are a primary concern at this age • To reduce choking portions should be served in small pieces (cut grapes and berries) • Food should also be soft or moist as dry foods are more of a choking hazard • Some foods cause great risks for children: honey for example can cause a serious food allergy before a child is one.
HEALTH TIP: Children should not even be exposed to direct sunlight before the age of one – Health Canada states they should receive vitamin D supplement until they reach one year of age if they are breastfed and if they are formula it is fortified so no supplement is required.
Feeding Infants Continued • Infants under the age of two should drink full fat dairy products • Fat is necessary for brain development and growth • Letting a child go to bed with a bottle of milk or juice carries with it an increased risk of the infant developing early childhood caries. • Caries: is cavities in teeth cause by decay of tooth enamel • Canadian Dental Association suggests that only WATER is to be given to infants especially if it is to remain in a bottle overnight. Keeping in mind breastfed babies wont have a bottle and therefore do not need water until their diet includes solid foods at the 6 month mark.
THINK CRITICALLY • Once children have been introduced to solid food, why is it recommended that they continue to consume breast milk or formula? • Explain how parental modelling could help a child to make healthy food choices?