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First Annual Hong Kong INNOPAC Users Meeting 15 November, 2000 Hong Kong Baptist University. A New Systematic Approach to Cataloging Full-Text Electronic Journals: the HKBU Library Experience. LI Yiu On Systems Librarian Hong Kong Baptist University Library yoli@hkbu.edu.hk.

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A new systematic approach to cataloging full text electronic journals the hkbu library experience

First Annual Hong Kong INNOPAC Users Meeting

15 November, 2000

Hong Kong Baptist University

A New Systematic Approach to Cataloging Full-Text Electronic Journals:the HKBU Library Experience

LI Yiu On

Systems Librarian

Hong Kong Baptist University Library yoli@hkbu.edu.hk

Revised: 21 Dec., 2000

A new systematic approach to cataloging e journals
A New Systematic Approach to Cataloging E-Journals


I. Introduction

II. Traditional Approach to Cataloging E-Journals

III. New Systematic Approach

IV. Conclusion

I introduction background
I. Introduction: Background

  • Library Investment -- E-Journal subscriptions have increased rapidly in the past few years. More E-Journals titles are expected to be acquired in future

  • Change of Publishing Industry – discount is granted to the library for subscribing the electronic version, e.g. Emerald, OUP. More printed issues will be switched to online versions

  • Expectation of Library Users – able to retrieve the journal articles online in a simple, consistent, and direct way

Users expectation
Users’ Expectation

  • Integrate E-Journals to OPAC:

    • OPAC should reflect the library collection

    • OPAC serves as a gateway of research

    • Some index/abstract databases provide a function to let the users to check the library's online catalog for current holdings by ISSN (e.g. ERL, Web of Science)

  • A separate complete E-Journal title list on the library homepage:

    • For ease of browsing / a highlight of a special collection

  • Ii traditional approach to handle e journals
    II. Traditional Approach to Handle E-Journals

    • Work are handled by various Sections




    Journal Acquisitions

    Journal Cataloging


    WWW Complete E-Journal List


    Traditional approach problems
    Traditional Approach -- Problems

    1. Incomplete E-Journal Records

    • Unable to integrate all E-Journal titles to other library resources in our OPAC (e.g full-text journal titles included in PQD, Academic Universe, EbscoHost databases)

      2. Record Inconsistencies

    • Cataloging principles or rules to describe e-journal titles adopted by various sections are not standardized

    • E-Journal title list on library homepage vs. OPAC E-Journal Catalog Records

      3. Incorrect Data

    • Obsolete records (e.g. BPO, Emerald records)

    • Invalid URLs and outdated coverage note

    Causes of problems
    Causes of Problems

    1. High cataloging cost

    2. Duplicate labor efforts used in creating complete E-Journal title list on library homepage

    3. High ongoing maintenance cost

    4. Perpetual right to access E-Journal titles

    High labor cost for e journal cataloging 1
    High Labor Cost for E-Journal Cataloging (1)

    • Thousands of journal titles are included in large E-Journal databases, e.g.

    High labor cost for e journal cataloging 2
    High Labor Cost for E-Journal Cataloging (2)

    • Assumptions:

      • All catalog records can be downloaded from OCLC (no original cataloging is performed)

      • Average time of serial cataloging is from 10 to 20 minutes (NOT including the work of adding the direct URL links, coverage note, etc…)*

      • Average cataloging time for one E-Journal title: 15 minutes

        *Jones, Neil. “Network-accessible resources and the redefinition of technical services”. OCLC Systems & Services, vol. 14, no. 1, 1998, p. 29

    High labor cost for e journal cataloging 3
    High Labor Cost for E-Journal Cataloging (3)

    • It will take a total of 116,145 minutes (1,935 hours) to catalog all the full-text E-Journal titles included in AU, EbscoHost, and PQD

    • If a cataloger works 40 hours per week, it will use 48.39 working weeks to complete project

    Labor cost for creating complete e journal on library homepage
    Labor Cost for Creating Complete E-Journal on Library Homepage

    • Assumption

      • the time required to create a complete E-Journal title list on Library homepage equals 1/3 of the cataloging time

    • It will take additional 16.13 working weeks

    Updating maintenance cost
    Updating/Maintenance Cost Homepage

    • E-journals included in the above three databases are not permanent.

    • New titles are added monthly while some titles are removed without advanced notification

    • Assumptions:

      • the maintenance work will take 5% of working hours used in cataloging E-Journal and creating E-Journal title list on homepage

    • Maintenance works equal 3.22 working weeks per year

    Total labor cost
    Total Labor Cost Homepage

    • The processing time for cataloging/handling the full-text E-Journals in the large databases, AU, EbscoHost and PQD is


      Cataloging Time 48.39

      E-Journal List (homepage) 16.13

      Maintenance (Annually) 3.22

      Total 67.74

      (1.3 Years)

    Perpetual right to access e journal titles 1
    Perpetual Right to Access E-Journal Titles (1) Homepage

    • Unlike the other library acquired materials, the library does not have the perpetual right to access the E-Journal titles available in the above databases

    • The library may only access these e-journal titles as long as subscription continues

    • Indeed, even the above database publishers/vendors do not have the perpetual rights themselves, it explains why E-Journal titles are going in/out of these databases

    Perpetual right to access e journal titles 2
    Perpetual Right to Access E-Journal Titles (2) Homepage

    • A question comes up:

    • Should the Library devote such huge manpower and resources in cataloging e-journals and in maintaining a separate complete e-journal title list on the homepage when the library does not have a permanent right to access them ?

    A time to change
    A Time to Change Homepage

    • Answer: YES (reason see p. 2-3)

    • If yes, should we rely on the traditional manual cataloging approach to handle E-Journal titles?

    • Is it possible to have a more cost-effective and timely means for providing access to all library subscribed E-Journal titles?

    Iii a new systematic approach
    III. A New Systematic Approach Homepage

    • The E-Journal Project was carried out in March 2000

    • This Project was proposed by the Systems Section with support from the Acquisitions, Cataloging and Reference Section

    • Stage 1: completed in April 2000

    • Stage 2: completed in November 2000

    E journal project goal 1
    E-Journal Project Goal (1) Homepage

    To enable library users to access E-Journal titles in a simple, consistent, direct and accurate way


    E journal project goal 2
    E-Journal Project Goal (2) Homepage

    • Simple*

      • provide one-stop shopping for users to access E-Journals

      • all E-Journal titles are integrated to other library resources in OPAC

      • a single catalog record approach is most preferable

        *Helfer, Doris Small. “The trend in academia: one stop shopping for students”. Searcher, Nov/Dec 97, vol. 5, issue 10.

    E journal project goal 3
    E-Journal Project Goal (3) Homepage

    • Consistent*

      • recommend general rules and basic data elements for cataloging E-Journal titles

        *Program For Cooperative Cataloging. “PCC Standing Committee on Automation (SCA). Task Group on Journals in Aggregator Databases. Final Report” January 2000. Http://lcweb.loc.gov/catdir/pcc/aggfinal.html

    E journal project goal 4
    E-Journal Project Goal (4) Homepage

    • Direct

      • the URL link should go directly to journal title page rather than the database homepage

    • Accurate

      • propose a systematic and efficient record maintenance strategy for E-Journals found in AU, EbscoHost, and PQD

    E journal project tasks
    E-Journal Project Tasks Homepage

    • Tasks

      • To integrate all the full-text E-Journal titles to the other library resources in OPAC

      • To compile and publish a complete library subscribed E-Journal title list on the library homepage

      • To design an ongoing maintenance mechanism

    • Working Philosophy

      • Work should be accomplished in a simple, systematic, and efficient way with maximum staff involvement and minimum staff works

    Two types of e journals
    Two Types of E-Journals Homepage

    • According to the ways of access and subscription, E-Journal titles may be divided into two types:

      • Unstable Titles

      • Stable Titles

    Unstable e journal titles
    Unstable E-Journal Titles Homepage

    • Library accesses these E-Journal titles via a large index/abstract database, e.g. AU, EbhostHost, PQD

    • Journal titles are not owned by the database publishers

    • Journal titles going in/out databases frequently

    Stable e journal titles
    Stable E-Journal Titles Homepage

    • Library has a direct subscription to these titles

      • Online versions provided with the subscribed printed issues, e.g. Cambridge Journals Online, SwetsNets

      • Titles having online version only, e.g. Emerald, OUP

    • Database vendors own the perpetual rights of the E-Journals

      • joint venture projects like JSTOR, Project Muse

    • They are stable in the sense that they will not go in/out of OPAC frequently even the library does not have a right to access them permanently

    Manual computer generated catalog records
    Manual & Computer Generated Catalog Records Homepage

    • Stable titles --> Manually Created Catalog Records

      • New records downloaded from OCLC, handled by Cataloging Section

      • Adding URLs to individual subscribed titles, handled by Serials staff

    • Unstable titles --> Computer Generated Records

      • Based on the list provided by the database vendor

      • Records generated by computer program automatically

      • Handled by Systems Section

    Stable e journals having print issues
    Stable E-Journals Having Print Issues Homepage

    • Add the following tags to the existing catalog records: e.g. Mind

    Stable e journals having online version only
    Stable E-Journals having Online Version Only Homepage

    • Download full records from OCLC

    • Add the above MARC tags to this new records

    • Note:

      • record does not have attached item record

      • Bib location is “er” (Electronic Resources)

    Full marc record set provided by vendors
    Full MARC Record Set Provided by Vendors Homepage

    • Based on the suggestions by PCC, some database vendors are going to provide their full MARC record sets:

      • Academic Search Fulltext Elite by EbscoHost

      • ProQuest (available in November)

    • Maintenance can be simply done

      • uploading the new complete set regularly

      • all records remaining with a prior date in the system are deleted

    Restrictions on using vendor provided marc records 1
    Restrictions on Using Vendor Provided MARC Records (1) Homepage

    • Different record sets have different overlaid tag 035

    • Multiple records will be created for the same title found in different databases

    Restrictions on using vendor provided marc records 2
    Restrictions on Using Vendor Provided MARC Records (2) Homepage

    • No. of duplicate titles in three aggregator databases

      • Multiple record approach: 7,730 catalog records

      • Single record approach: 6,665 catalog records

      • Duplicate records: 1,065 catalog records

    Restrictions on using vendor provided marc records 3
    Restrictions on Using Vendor Provided MARC Records (3) Homepage

    • Some tags are not supported by the HKBU Innopac system, including:

      • tag 773 Database vendor title -- not indexed

      • tag 856 subfield 3 Coverage Note -- cannot be displayed in WebPAC

      • tag 856 contains in-house Perl script, e.g. PQD and AU which will not be provided by vendor

    Unstable e journals records generated by computer automatically
    Unstable E-Journals Records Generated by Computer Automatically

    • A computer program is specially designed to create E-Journal records automatically

      • This program can compile a complete full-text E-Journal list based on the list provided by database vendors (titles only with index/abstract are excluded)

      • Single record approach: Titles duplicate in AU, EbscoHost and PQD will be joined together to create a single catalog record, e.g. ABA Banking Journal

      • Create a dynamic 035 tag for record maintenance

      • Create a direct URL link

    Basic marc tags for unstable e journals records
    Basic MARC Tags for Unstable E-Journals Records Automatically

    • 001: Library Name with Record Creation Date

    • 022: ISSN

    • 035 Dynamic Unique Record Overlaid Point

    • 245 Journal Title + GMD, (i.e. [computer file])

    • 599 Coverage Note

    • 740 Database Title

    • 856 Direct URL

    How to create a direct url
    How to Create a Direct URL Automatically

    • Tag 856 in Innopac can only accept 90 characters

    • The direct URL to AU and PQD journal title page exceeds that length, e.g. the direct link to search the journal title “South China Morning Post” in AU is


    • An in-house Perl script is specially designed to shorten the URL length as http://www.hkbu.edu.hk/lib-cgi/au.pl?t=South+China+Morning+Post

    How to create a dynamic tag 035
    How to Create a Dynamic Tag 035 Automatically

    • The tag used for record updating

    • How to generate / calculate an unique tag 035 field for each journal title

      • Use ISSN if available--> “ej” + ISSN, e.g. ABA Banking Journal

      • Use title truncation, the formula is: “ej” + first 2 characters of the first three words + first 2 characters of the last word + last 2 characters of the first two words + last 2 & 3 characters of the last word + total length of that title

      • ejsochmopothnaos24 for South China Morning Post

      • in case of duplicate string, the string will be automatically increased by 1

    Marc conversion program
    MARC Conversion Program Automatically

    • The program will try to find the full MARC records from various databases provided

      • If found, a full record + basic MARC tags will be generated

      • If not found, a brief record (basic MARC tags) will be used

    • Convert the complete title list to MARC format

    • Upload the records to Innopac system

    Number of records generated by computer
    Number of Records Generated by Computer Automatically

    • Do we need to catalog the brief records manually?

    • Our suggestion is to leave them as they are, as no one can guarantee that they will remain stay in the next batch

    E journal full record in hkbu web opac
    E-Journal Full Record in HKBU Web OPAC Automatically

    Single record approach

    E journal brief record in hkbu web opac
    E-Journal Brief Record in HKBU Web OPAC Automatically

    Database title and subset title

    Record maintenance
    Record Maintenance Automatically

    • Full E-Journal Records

      • Handled by Cataloging and Serial Staff

    • Computer Generated E-Journal Records

      • Handled by Systems Section regularly

      • Create a new complete list

      • Upload the whole list to Innopac

      • New records are created, old records are overlaid

      • Records with CAT with prior date are deleted by global function

    Complete www e journal list
    Complete WWW E-Journal List Automatically

    • Create a Innopac review list file which contains all the full and brief E-Journal records

    • Only title field (tag 245) and URL (tag 856) are required

    • A computer program to convert this file to HTML pages to be published on Library homepage

    • Feature Collection: a link point to the tag 740 of E-Journal records in Web OPAC

    • http://www.hkbu.edu.hk/lib/ejours/index.html

    Bu library subscribed e journal title statistics
    BU Library Subscribed E-Journal Title Statistics Automatically

    • As of this writing,the BU Library has a total of 8,825 E-Journal records

    • 87.8%of the E-Journal records come from three large index/abstract databases: AU, EbscoHost and PQD

    • It means if you can save your time in processing the E-Journal from large databases, it certainly will reduce an enormous amount of work

    Working time
    Working Time Automatically

    • Comparing with the traditional manual approach in handling E-Journal (see p. 13), the processing time of new approach is:

    Conclusion 1
    Conclusion (1) Automatically

    • The lessons we learn from this project:

      • Data sharing:

        • Data created by one section can be shared and used by other sections

        • In order to share the data, they must be created in pre-defined and systematic structure

        • Data creation works by various sections must be clearly stated

        • Never waste valuable labor cost in creating:

          • redundant data; and

          • unstable data

    Conclusion 2
    Conclusion (2) Automatically

    • The approach is capable of handling the other database subsets from EhscoHost and PQD

    • With a slight enhancement, it can develop to accept different types of records from different databases as long as the title lists are stored in delimited format

    • We will use the same approach to create some 2,000 catalog records for NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research) Working Paper Series

    Acknowledgement Automatically

    • Last but not the least, special thanks are due to the following colleagues, without their constructive inputs, supports, and co-operation, it would be impossible to complete the whole project in such a tight schedule:

      Mrs.. Shirley Leung, University Librarian

      Mr. Stephen Dingler, Cataloging Librarian

      Ms. Wing Yan Woo, Acquisition Librarian

      Mr. Paul Lee, Reference Librarian

      Mr. David Chung, Cataloging Section

      Mr. Wing Chung Yip, Acquisitions Section

      -- The End --