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DNA replication. BIG IDEA. Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes. Enduring understanding. Heritable information provides for continuity of life. Essential Knowledge: DNA is the primary source of inheritable info

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Big idea
BIG IDEA

  • Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes.


Enduring understanding
Enduring understanding

  • Heritable information provides for continuity of life.


  • Essential Knowledge:

    • DNA is the primary source of inheritable info

    • In eukaryotes, heritable info is passed on the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis and meiosis plus fertilization.

    • The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to offspring.


1 how was the structure of dna identified
1. How was the structure of DNA identified?

2. Erwin Chargoff:

*Chargoff’s rule : The proportion of adenine equals that of thymine, and guanine equals that of cytosine -- therefore, purines are proportionate to pyrimidines


Homework
Homework

  • Read p. 241- 243…be prepared to write out the answers to questions 1-4 on p. 243 in class tomorrow.

  • Take notes for a quiz on p. 295-299.


1 why do cells divide
1. Why do cells divide?

2. Surface area to volume ratio is not large enough

* cells cannot move molecules in/out effectively





1 why how does dna replicate prior to cell division
1. Why & how does DNA replicate prior to cell division?

2. Cells need to transmit their DNA to cells

* body cells (somatic cells) need to be identical to parent cell

* sex cells (gametes) need to pass

1/2 genetic material to offspring


2. DNA is the genetic code within chromosomes

* DNA is wrapped tightly around proteins (histones) = nucleosome

* Nucleosomes are looped and coiled to make chromosomes compact

* Chromatin is the “substance” of DNA & histones




2. Steps to DNA semi-conservative replication

* DNA unzips (helicase)

* DNA polymerase joins new

nucleotides to form new

strand

* Replication goes in

both directions


Practice replication
Practice replication

3’ A T G C A G 5’

5’ T A C G T C 3’


2. Other jobs of DNA polymerase

* connects sugars to phosphates

* proofreads DNA.


Dna replication video animation
DNA replication video animation

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120076/micro04.swf::DNA Replication Fork



2. telomeres shorten with cell divisions....adult cells stop using telomerase.....cancer cells keep telomerase working......FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH?


Think about this
Think about this. using telomerase.....cancer cells keep telomerase working......FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH?

  • Why do cells divide?

  • When do cells replicate their DNA?

  • Do organisms grow by getting bigger cells? Or more cells?

  • How does a lizard regrow a tail?


Romanovs mdna
Romanovs mDNA using telomerase.....cancer cells keep telomerase working......FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH?

http://www.dnai.org/d/index.html?m=2,1


Pcr a technique used to copy dna
PCR- a technique used to copy DNA using telomerase.....cancer cells keep telomerase working......FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH?

  • http://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/pcr.html


Refer to ipad tutorial w shoelaces reflection p 485
Refer to iPad- tutorial w/shoelaces using telomerase.....cancer cells keep telomerase working......FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH? reflection p. 485

  • PREVIEW OF MITOSIS/

    • Listen to vocabulary


1 what is the cell cycle of a cell
1. What is the cell cycle of a cell? using telomerase.....cancer cells keep telomerase working......FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH?

2.  

Interphase: stage 1

G1 - growth,

protein synthesis,

general cell functioning

S - DNA is replicated

G2 - cell prepares for division


2.Mitosis using telomerase.....cancer cells keep telomerase working......FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH? (nuclear division)

a. Prophase – chromosomes condense - chromatids visible -nuclear membrane dissolves



c. Anaphase - chromatids pull apart to opposite poles of cell (spindle fibers made in G2 pull chromatids apart)


d. Telophase - nuclear membranes reappear, cell pinches in to divide in plants the cell plate (wall) forms


Cytokinesis
Cytokinesis to divide in plants the cell plate (wall) forms

  • Cell continues to pinch in & cytoplasm divides out—2 new daughter cells are made… both have identical copies of the chromosomes


Review of cell cycle
Review of cell cycle to divide in plants the cell plate (wall) forms


Tutorial
Tutorial to divide in plants the cell plate (wall) forms

http://sciencenetlinks.com/interactives/dna.html


Online tutorials
Online tutorials to divide in plants the cell plate (wall) forms

  • http://district.bluegrass.kctcs.edu/rmccane0001/shared_files/bio137website/BIO137/137Lab2/Lab2MitosisSlides.html


Create a table
Create a table to divide in plants the cell plate (wall) forms

  • Create a two column chart.

  • Column one- describe what is happening

  • Column two- sketch the image…


1 how do cells regulate the cell cycle
1.How do cells regulate the cell cycle? to divide in plants the cell plate (wall) forms

  • 2. Cells stop growth when they come in contact with one another

  • 2. Regulatory proteins (cyclins)

    * Check to see that DNA is replicated

    *Check to make sure spindle fibers are attached

    2. Growth factors stimulate/stop cell division


Analyze rise fall of cyclins
Analyze Rise & Fall of Cyclins to divide in plants the cell plate (wall) forms

  • iPad p. 491 parrot book


  • 2. Apoptosis- programmed cell death to divide in plants the cell plate (wall) forms

    • * forms body parts- foot, hand…

    • * cells die if there is a problem (usually)

    • * too much cell death- Parkinson’s disease



Cancer knows no bounds
Cancer knows no bounds to divide in plants the cell plate (wall) forms


Timeline
Timeline to divide in plants the cell plate (wall) forms

  • 1. notes: why do cells divide? & how does DNA replicate?

  • mtDNA/Romanovs & PCR computer lab.

  • Notes: cell cycle/color code sheet…

  • Online mitosis (full period)

  • Notes: cancer/stem cells & cell regulation


  • 1. Give 2 reasons why cells divide. to divide in plants the cell plate (wall) forms

  • 2. As a cell increases in size, which increases more rapidly, its surface area or volume?

  • 3. Calculate the surface area to volume of a cube 2 x 2 x 2.


  • 4. Do prokaryotic cells have a nucleus? to divide in plants the cell plate (wall) forms

  • 5. What are the proteins that DNA is tightly coiled around?

  • 6. What is chromatin?

  • 7. The process of DNA copying is called:

  • 8. The enzyme responsible for copying DNA is called:


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