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Ratifying the Constitution. Chapter 3 Section 3. Do Now. What is the purpose of government? Consider why governments are put in place and what society would be like without a government. Introduction.

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ratifying the constitution

Ratifying the Constitution

Chapter 3 Section 3

do now
Do Now
  • What is the purpose of government?
    • Consider why governments are put in place and what society would be like without a government.
  • As the Convention ended in Philadelphia, delegates rushed home to begin the campaign for ratification.
  • Each state elected a convention to vote on the constitution.
    • Nine states had vote for document to ratify it.
  • Americans debated in state legislatures, in mass meetings, newspapers, and in everyday conversations.
federalists vs anti federalist
Federalists vs. Anti-federalist
  • Federalists – supported Constitutional ratification
    • Name emphasized that the constitution would create a federal system
    • Believed power should be divide among central and state governments.
    • They hoped smaller states would understand that each state would keep some power
    • Included large landowners, merchants, and artisans
      • The wanted government protection and taxes on imports
    • Farmers along the coast supported the Constitution which would regulate trade and protect prices.
anti federalists
  • Misleading name – not against federalism
  • Accepted the need for a national gov.
  • Real issued was if central or state governments would have more power.
  • Prominent Anti-Federalists included John Hancock, Patrick Henry, of Virginia, and George Clinton, gov. of New York, (Edmund Randolph and George Mason believed constitution should include a bill of rights)
    • Sam Adams believe it impinged on the rights of the states
  • Many were western farmers living far from coast, self sufficient, and believed it may foreclose their farms
the federalist essays
The Federalist (Essays)
  • Several factors worked against the Anti-federalists
    • They complained but did not offer a solution
    • Federalists were also better organized
  • Federalists offered ideas in pamphlets, speeches and debates in state conventions.
  • The Federalist – 85 essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay (under the pen name Publius)
    • Published New York Newspapers before publishing them as the Federalist book
    • Explained how the new US Constitution worked and why it was needed
    • Even today judges, lawyers, legislators, and historians read the Federalist to help them interpret the Constitution
battle for ratification
Battle for Ratification
  • Federalist knew they had clear majorities in some states, but that larger states like New York would be more difficult to convince.
  • Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Conneticut quickly ratified the Constitution.
the debate in massachussetts
The Debate in Massachussetts
  • Opponents of the Constitution held a clear majority at first (including John Hancock and Samuel Adams- both had signed Dec. of Ind.)
  • Sam Adams said constitution must never infringe on liberty of press, right to own arms, support search and seizure without a warrant
    • As a result federalists agreed to attach a bill of rights to the Constitution once it was ratified
    • Agreed to add amendment that would support state rights
      • This persuaded Adams to support the Constitution
      • Hancock and supporters joined in because they said they would nominate him for president
  • Final vote – 187 for and 168 against
the debate in virginia
The Debate in Virginia
  • By the end of June 1788 Maryland, South Carolina and New Hampshire had ratified the Constitution.
  • Federalists had reached the nine states needed to ratify the constitution.
    • New York and Virginia had not yet ratified
      • Without the support of these two states many felt the Constitution would fail.
      • George Mason and Patrick Henry argued strongly against ratification
      • George Washington and James Madison presented the arguments for ratification to Virginia – the Governor agreed
      • Virginia did narrowly supported the New Constitution
new york votes to ratify
New York Votes to Ratify
  • 2/3 of the elected legislature were Anti-Federalists, including governor Clinton
  • Federalist led by Hamilton and John Jay tried to assure others that the Constitution would not infringe on state rights
  • Hamilton explained it had been specifically designed to limit tyranny.
  • Federalists managed to delay the vote until New Hampshire and Virginia ratified the Constitution and the new federal gov. was now in effect
    • City of New York warned state government that it would secede from NY and join the United States independently if Constitution was not ratified
ny votes to ratify cont
NY Votes to Ratify Cont…
  • Some states did not initially ratify the Constitution
  • We will discuss the reasons during class.
first presidential election
First Presidential Election
  • George Washington was elected unopposed
    • Swilling the voters?
  • Federalist candidates for VP
    • John Adams, former Minister to Great Britain from Massachusetts
    • John Jay, U.S. Secretary of Foreign Affairs from New York
    • John Rutledge, former Governor of South Carolina
    • John Hancock, Governor of Massachusetts
    • Samuel Hutington, Governor of Connecticut
    • Benjamin Lincoln, former U.S. Secretary of War from Massachusetts
washington s cabinet
Washington’s Cabinet
  • As the first president of the United States, George Washington established the precedent of appointing a cabinet.
  • Neither required by law nor the Constitution, the cabinet consisted of political advisors to the president.
  • Washington wisely selected
    • John Adams (VP)
    • Thomas Jefferson (Sec. of State)
    • Hamilson (Sec. of Treasury)
    • Edmund Randolph

(Attorney General)

  • Successive presidents have continued the tradition of selecting a cabinet, though scholars debate its usefulness.