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Topics. Multi-FPGA systems. Issues. Types of multi-FPGA systems. Multi-FPGA networks. Multi-FPGA partitioning. Types of systems. Can build a specialized multi-FPGA system. Wired for one purpose. Can build reusable multi-FPGA system. Emulators, other debugging systems. Networks. Ad hoc.

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topics
Topics
  • Multi-FPGA systems.
issues
Issues
  • Types of multi-FPGA systems.
  • Multi-FPGA networks.
  • Multi-FPGA partitioning.
types of systems
Types of systems
  • Can build a specialized multi-FPGA system.
    • Wired for one purpose.
  • Can build reusable multi-FPGA system.
    • Emulators, other debugging systems.
networks
Networks
  • Ad hoc.
    • Best suited for specialized systems.
  • Crossbar.
    • Fully connected.
  • Specialized crossbars.
  • Multi-stage.
    • Not often used in multi-FPGA systems.
crossbar
Crossbar
  • Fully connected:

w

x

y

z

a

b

c

d

properties of crossbar
Properties of crossbar
  • Fully connected:
    • Single source/destination.
    • Multi-point.
  • n2 area.
clos network
Clos network
  • System of crossbars that has less than n2 area.
  • Fully connected for single-destination connections.
    • Not fully connected for multiple destinations.
net size distribution
Net size distribution
  • Most nets are small, making Clos network feasible for logic:

# nets

# pins

1

2

3

partial crossbar
Partial crossbar
  • Takes advantage of FPGA reprogrammability.
  • Several small crossbars.
    • If your crossbar doesn’t have room for the connection, reprogram to use another crossbar on another pin.
trees and fat trees
Trees and fat trees
  • Trees allow communication between leaves.
  • Fat trees provide more bandwidth near root.

multi chip partitioning
Multi-chip partitioning
  • Somewhat similar to partitioning for LE placement.
  • Differences:
    • k-way partitioning;
    • pins are a major cost;
    • must handle large problems.
k way partitioning
K-way partitioning
  • Direct:
    • Divide into k sets.
  • Iterative:
    • Extract one set, then another, etc.
clustering based partitioning
Clustering-based partitioning
  • Grow a cluster to form a partition.
    • Start with a seed for the cluster.
    • Choose new nodes to add to the cluster.
  • Next move depends on the quality of the previous moves.
fiduccia mattheyses partitioning
Fiduccia-Mattheyses partitioning
  • Can deal with variable-sized blocks.
  • Related to Kernighan-Lin partitioning.
    • Uses a new data structure to determine the best cell to move.
  • Uses an improved algorithm for updating cell gains after a move.
    • Total gain recomputation can be performed by a set of constant time gain increments/decrements.
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