The Land Down Under. Oceania. Oceania. Oceania is made up of 23 countries, spread over 10,000 islands. It covers over 3.3 million square miles, but only has 0.5 percent of the world’s population!
Australia has a temperate climate, which means there are many sunny days with mild temperatures.
Australia is located below the equator, so its seasons are opposite of ours. Summer is from December to March and winter is from June to August.
The coastal areas get plenty of rain, while the interior stays dry.
The outback is warm during the day, but chilly at night.
Many natural resources, such as uranium, natural gas & zinc, can be found along the coastline.
One of Australia’s largest natural resources is coal, which is used for energy. They produce enough to provide electricity for the island and sell the rest.
Australia also has huge deposits of iron ore, (used to make steel) and gold (used to make coins and jewelry).
There are huge ranches in the Outback where sheep are raised to produce wool.
When settlers arrived, there were 750,000 Aborigines, or native Australians, living on the continent. Today only 1% of Australia’s population is Aborigine.
The Aborigines lived by hunting and gathering food.
They had a semi-nomadic lifestyle (which means they moved as they needed to for food sources).
Family units were vitally important, as all members of a tribe were related.
Each tribe was led by religious leaders, with no political chief or formal government, and was broken down into bands (hunting groups)
There were many myths and rituals connected to both the tribe's ancestors and the creators of the world, none of whom ever died but merged with the natural world and thus remained a part of the present.
These myths and rituals, were known as the Dreaming or the Dreamtime, and reflected a belief in the continuity of existence and harmony with the world.
They were also a source of inspiration for much aboriginal art, including paintings, carved objects, symbolic weapons and poetic chants
The settlers viewed the natives as barbarians, seizing tribal land and, in many cases, taking it by force.
Many Aborigines died of disease, starvation, cultural dislocation and neglect.
Today, there are fewer than 230,000 Aborigines in Australia.
Only 39% finish a high school education, compared to 75% of non-indigenous students in Australia.
Australia was settled by Great Britain during the colonial period.
Australian ports were a life-line. The Australian colonies were totally dependent on ships for supplies and news from the 'motherland', Great Britain.
1600’s Abel Tasman discovered Tasmania, New Zealand, the Tonga and the Fiji Islands, and was the first circumnavigator of Australia
1770 - James Cook explored & mapped Eastern Australia .
1623 - Jan Carstensz reported to the Dutch East India captains of seeing a dry land, no use to mankind, whose inhabitants were 'the poorest and most wretched creatures ever seen'.
Although Australians share a common language with Great Britain and America, they have a unique accent & vocabulary.
1. Which explorer claimed Australia for Great Britain?
2. Which coast of Australia did the above explorer claim for the British in 1770?
3. What type of people were the first British colonists in Australia?
4. What were the 3 main reasons that the British wanted to colonize Australia?
5. Why does Australia have a mix of Catholic and Protestant beliefs unlike some other places settled by Europeans?
6. What ended up happening to the Aborigines that were native to Australia?
Religions in Australia reflect their heritage.
Over 70% claim to be Christian, with almost half being either Anglican or Catholic.
This goes back to the time when England sent Catholic prisoners from Ireland and when Anglican missionaries came during colonization.
Australia has mixed economy and has the least government control .
Supply & demand determine the 3 economic questions:
What to produce?
How to produce it?
Whom to produce it for?
People can own their own businesses and produce what they want.
Their currency is the Australian dollar.
Mining coal and iron ore became important in the 1960’s.
They export coal, iron ore & wool.
Australia import most of their products from China & the U.S.
They import computers, machinery & petroleum.
A tariff is a tax on imported goods. An example of a tariff in Australia would be if China wanted to sell boomerangs in Australia, they might have to pay $100 to do so. The purpose of a tariff is to protect domestic businesses.
Quotas are restrictions on the amount of a product that can be imported. An example would be if Australia only allowed 20 Chinese boomerangs to be imported. The purpose of quotas is to encourage consumers to buy domestic products.
Human capital (labor): Australia has invested in their work force by offering free public education and skill training.
Capital: Australia has invested in factories, machines & technology.
Natural Resources: Australia has developed a strong export trade in coal, iron ore and uranium. There is also a large market for gold and diamonds.
Entrepreneurs: Australia encourages new business and provides training on how to get started.
Australia has a federal parliamentary democracy.
Federal: It has a central government with 6 state governments.
Parliamentary: The legislative branch makes the laws.
Democracy: Citizens are highly involved.
Leader of majority party chosen
Makes sure decisions
Queen’s representative in Australia
House of representatives
Everyone over 18 is REQUIRED to vote.
If you do not vote and do not have a good excuse (sick, in jail, handicapped, etc.) you must pay a fine.
This began in 1924 because over half the citizens did not vote.
Now over 90% vote in each election.